Do Now: Brainstorm with your group: What is soil made of? (hint: not dirt!)
What is soil made from? • Weathered rock particles • Organic matter (humus) • Water • air
Round robin: What are some characteristics, or properties, of soil?
Properties of Soil • Texture • Size and feel of rock particles • Color • Red, brown,yellow, green, black • Pore space • Space between rock particles • Chemistry • pH: how acidic soil is
Why is soil important? • With your group, brainstorm some reasons why you should care about soil.
Why is soil composition important?Why should you care about soil? • Determines what you can grow in it • Determines what you can build on it • What happens to rain that falls on it
Some notes for today’s lab • DO NOT DUMP ANY DIRT DOWN THE DRAIN!!! • Place dirt and water in a tub in the back of the room. A volunteer will dump this outside at the end of class. • When washing out glassware, dump dirty water in the bin with the tan tights. • Table not cleaned up? Lose points!!
More notes for today’s lab • Here is how to properly read a graduated cylinder. This cylinder has 11.5 ml of fluid. You measure at the bottom of the curve, called the meniscus.
What you should accomplish today • Pore space test (Part 1) • Make sure you pour in the water slowly, a few drops at a time. • Particle type test (Part 3) • If you did not bring in a jar, measure your water and soil in a beaker. • Put your name on a gallon-storage baggie. • Transfer the soil and water to the baggie, and mix in there. Put this in the bin marked with block number.
Weathering • The process by which natural forces break down rocks.
Mechanical weathering • Breaking up rocks by using physical force
Chemical weathering • Breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions that change the rock’s composition.
Is it mechanical or chemical? • Chemical weathering • Mechanical weathering • Mechanical weathering
Is it mechanical or is it chemical? • Mechanical weathering • Chemical weathering • Mechanical weathering
Silent and solo • Which do you think will dissolve limestone faster: water or acid? • Write down your prediction!
Quick Lab at your table • Who’s birthday is next at your table? They should get safety goggles for the table! • Person #1 gets 2 beakers with chalk. • Person #2 gets 2 graduated cylinders: one with water, and one with vinegar. • Person #3 adds the water to the chalk. Wait one minute after you add the water and observe. • Person #4 adds the vinegar to the chalk. Wait one minute after you add the vinegar and observe.
Demonstration! • I am going to use 2 pieces of chalk . I am placing one piece of chalk in water, and I am placing one piece of chalk in vinegar. • Silent and solo, predict what you think will happen.
Demonstration • What did you actually observe happening to the chalk? Did it dissolve faster in water or vinegar? • Based on this experiment, what will happen to limestone rocks that are left out in the rain? What will happen if limestone is exposed to acid rain?
Weathering occurs at different rates • Larger the surface area, the faster it weathers • Composition affects it, too. • Tombstones made of granite • Which will rocks will weather faster, those in a dry or wet climate? • Wet: weathering requires water!
As a group… • Discuss some ways that animals impact soil. • Discuss some ways that humans harm soil.
Living beings use the soil • Plants • Microorganisms • Fungi • Bacteria • Animals
Human beings have an impact on soil. • Farming • Mining • Construction