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  1. Intelligence Pages 204 - 222 Your next Quiz #5

  2. Intelligence The capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to a changing environment

  3. Intelligence • We often associate it with; • Academic Success • Achievement on the Job • Socially appropriate behavior • It can not be seen - touched - or physically measured • It is subject to various interpretations

  4. Intelligence Theorists Research Activity Investigate the contributions of one intelligence theorist by visiting the following website: On a note card (provided), summarize the contribution(s) to intelligence by that theorist and be prepared to share it with the class.

  5. Intelligence Guys to know Spearman Guilford Goleman Thurstone Jensen Gardner Sternberg Wechsler

  6. 1 SPEARMAN G - Factor S - Factor General Abilities Broad based reasoning and problem-solving skills Specific Abilities Superior capabilities in some areas “Jack of all trades, master of ONE!”

  7. Article: Scientists pinpoint intelligence zone in the brain

  8. Extension Activity 11 – handout Answer each question to the best of your ability. Next, tell me which intelligence ability you believe L. Thurstone (intelligence theorist) was trying to test when asking that question. A synopsis will appear on the next slide to help you determine this.

  9. L. Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities • Visual & Spatial – visualizing forms and spatial relations • Perceptual Speed – grasping perceptual details rapidly, perceiving similarities and differences between stimuli • Numerical – computing numbers • Verbal Meaning – knowing the meanings of words • Memory – recalling information (words, sentences, etc.) • Word Fluency – thinking of words quickly (rhyming, doing crossword puzzles, etc.) • Deductive Reasoning – deriving examples from general rules • Inductive Reasoning – deriving general rules from examples

  10. THURSTONE Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Visual/Spatial 8 PMAs Word Fluency Perceptual Speed Memory Numerical Ability Verbal Meaning

  11. Twelve (12) members of a company were present at a board meeting. Each member shook hands with all of the other members before & after the meeting. How many handshakes were there?

  12. Who is the Smartest? • Gregg Cox • Venus Williams • Bill Gates • Steve Lu • Midori

  13. HOWARD GARDNER Existential Bodily Kinesthetic Naturalist MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Interpersonal Visual/Spatial Musical Intrapersonal Logical/Math Verbal/Linguistic

  14. HOWARD GARDNER – MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") Existential (“philosophically smart”) GARDNER ASKS HOW YOU ARE INTELLIGENT, NOT HOW INTELLIGENT YOU ARE!

  15. PIECES ON A BOARD What letter completes this set? 2k 2q 16p 4r 4b 4?

  16. GUILFORD Products Operations SOI Units Evaluation Contents Classes Convergent Thinking Figures Relations Divergent Thinking Symbols Systems Memorization Words Transformations Cognition Behaviors Implications

  17. JENSEN Level I Level II Associative Abilities Conceptual Abilities Rote Learning Memorization Logical Reasoning Problem- Solving Verbal Abilities

  18. Ability to deal with new situations Problem-Solving Skills Ability to accomplish every day tasks FIGURE 9.1 According to Sternberg, intelligence has three parts: the analytic part that enables us to solve problems, the creative part that allows us to deal with new situations, and the practical part that makes it possible for us to perform everyday tasks. We often use more than one of these parts simultaneously.

  19. STERNBERG TRIARCHIC MODEL Contextual Experiential Componential Metacomponents Knowledge- Acquisition Performance

  20. STERNBERG • The COMPONENTIAL sub theory which outlines the structures and mechanisms that underlie intelligent behavior categorized as metacognitive, performance, or knowledge acquisition components • The EXPERIENTIAL sub theory that proposes intelligent behavior be interpreted along a continuum of experience from novel to highly familiar tasks/situations • The CONTEXTUAL sub theory which specifies that intelligent behavior is defined by the sociocultural context in which it takes place and involves adaptation to the environment, selection of better environments, and shaping of the present environment.


  22. Marshmallow Walter Mischel – Self Control The Marshmallow Experiment & Time

  23. Emotional turned Social Intelligence

  24. Daniel Goleman - EQ • List 3 characteristics of a person high in emotional intelligence. • What does the author mean by ‘the emotional brain hijacks the thinking brain”? • How does the amygdala act as a “recorder”? • Name 3 areas of your life that a strong EQ will aid you. • What is the Marshmallow test? Do you think the findings of the test make the test reliable? Is this test valid? • According to the article, what are the best ways to aid your child’s EQ? • Can your EQ change? Why or Why not?

  25. Measurement of IntelligenceSection 2 SBIS - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Alfred Binet first introduces his test and Lewis Terman adapts it into what it is now (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale) IQ = MA/CA x 100 IQ = Intelligence Quotient (William Stern) MA = Mental Age CA = Chronological Age

  26. Information WECHSLER Digit Symbol Comprehension WAIS-R Picture Completion Verbal Subtests Performance Subtests Arithmetic Block Design Similarities Picture Arrangement Digit Span Object Assembly Vocabulary

  27. Aptitude – predict ability to learn Achievement – reflect on what’s been learned Intelligence Tests MUST BE: Standardized – defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Reliable - consistency (must yield similar results on different testing occasions) Valid - the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure

  28. Wechsler scales Finally, what is Deviation IQ? How is it different from the Stanford-Binet scale?

  29. Readings: • “LCP-enriched Formula Milk…” • “Another Study Shows Omega-3s…” Report: Benefits of Seafood Outweigh Risks (October 17, 2006) · 3:19) Getting Brain Food Straight from the Source (time 8:54)

  30. Mental Retardation

  31. Mental Retardation • What are the criteria for mental retardation? • What are the levels of mental retardation? • What are some of the Biological causes of retardation? • Where do those with Down Syndrome fit into the Mental Retardation picture? • What is Cultural Familial retardation?

  32. 1.What are the criteria for mental retardation? By definition, to have the label Mental Retardation, the person must have an IQ below 70, and impairments in adaptive functioning in at least two of the following areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety.


  34. Mild Mental Retardation IQ scores from 50 to 75 Includes about 85 percent of the mentally retarded population Individuals in this group can often live on their own with community support. Moderate Mental Retardation IQ scores between 35 and 50 Includes about 10 percent of the mentally retarded population Individuals in this group can often lead relatively normal lives provided they receive some level of supervision. Such individuals often live in group homes with other mentally retarded people. Severe Mental Retardation IQ scores between 20 and 35 Includes about 3 percent to 4 percent of the mentally retarded population Individuals in this category can often master the most basic skills of living, such as cleaning and dressing themselves. They often live in group homes. Profound Mental Retardation IQ scores of less than 20 Includes about 1 percent to 2 percent of the mentally retarded population Individuals at this level can often develop basic communication and self-care skills. They often have other mental disorders.

  35. CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION Reading - SOURCE: Mental retardation can be caused by any condition which impairs development of the brain. Several hundred causes have been discovered, but in about one-third of the people affected, the cause remains unknown. The three major known causes of mental retardation are Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome. • Genetic conditions • Problems during pregnancy • Problems after birth • Other contributors

  36. PKU (Phenylketonuria) DESCRIPTION Inability of body to metabolize (process and use) a specific protein. Mental retardation can result CAUSES Hereditary. Carried on recessive gene. DETECTION Newborn can be tested for condition (required by law in some states.) TREATMENT If diagnosed early, a special diet can reduce or prevent brain damage. No known cure

  37. PhenylalaninePhenylalanine is an amino acid that is one of the two components present in Aspartame. All products sweetened with Aspartame (also known by the brand name NutraSweet) carry a statement on the label to alert those individuals who must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. The statement reads "Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine." Phenylketonurics are people with a rare genetic disorder (it affects approximately 1 out of every 15,000 babies born). It is characterized by a marked inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. People with this disease become ill if they eat foods that contain phenylalanine. For the rest of the population it is completely safe. A test at birth determines whether or not this genetic disease is present, and individuals are placed on special diets which restrict phenylalanine intake. An eight-ounce glass of milk has more than 4 1/2 times as much phenylalanine as a 12-ounce Diet Pepsi.

  38. Congenital Heart Disease DESCRIPTION Structural defect affecting the heart’s ability to circulate blood. May be minor or severe. (Congenital means present at birth) CAUSES Hereditary and/or environmental; often unknown DETECTION Examination at birth or later TREATMENT Surgery or medication

  39. Down Syndrome DESCRIPTION A group of associated defects including mental retardation, delayed development, heart defects (in some cases), and other characteristics CAUSES Chromosomal error. For reasons not yet understood, there is an extra chromosome 21. DETECTION Analysis of the chromosomes. Amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling can detect the syndrome before birth TREATMENT Special therapy and schooling, corrective surgery *

  40. DOWN SYNDROME FACT SHEET Named after John Langdon Down, the first physician to identify the syndrome, Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mild to moderate mental retardation and associated medical problems and occurs in one out of 800 live births, in all races and economic groups. Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division that results in the presence of an additional third chromosome 21 or "trisomy 21." Down Syndrome occurs when the fertilized egg contains extra material from chromosome number 21, this results in Down syndrome.

  41. RELATIONSHIP OF DOWN SYNDROME INCIDENCE TO MOTHERS' AGE Under 30 Less than 1 in 1,000 30 1 in 900 35 1 in 400 36 1 in 300 37 1 in 230 38 1 in 180 39 1 in 135 40 1 in 105 42 1 in 60 44 1 in 35 46 1 in 20 48 1 in 16 49 1 in 12 Source: Hook, E.G., Lindsjo, A. Down Syndrome in Live Births by Single Year Maternal Age.

  42. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME • AMNIOCENTESIS • The removal and analysis of a small sample of fetal cells from the amniotic fluid. • Cannot be done until the 14-18th week of pregnancy • Lower risk of miscarriage than chorionic villus sampling • CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING (CVS) • Extraction of a tiny amount of fetal tissue at 9 to 11 weeks of pregnancy • The tissue is tested for the presence of extra material from chromosome 21 • Carries a 1-2% risk of miscarriage • PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL BLOOD SAMPLING (PUBS) • Most accurate method used to confirm the results of CVS or amniocentesis. • The tissue is tested for the presence of extra material from chromosome 21 • PUBS cannot be done until the 18-22nd week • Carries the greatest risk of miscarriage

  43. Characteristics • slanting, almond-shaped eyes • protruding tongue • small open mouth • small skull • flat bridge on nose • flat face • small ears • short neck • IQ 30-50 • slow to sit, walk, and talk • usually docile, easily managed • congenital heart defects • leukemia • acute/chronic infections

  44. TREATMENT • NO KNOWN CURE • Amino acid supplements and a drug known as Piracetam. Piracetam is a psychoactive drug that some believe may improve cognitive function. • Surgery to correct heart defects/abnormalities/features (readings)(video) • Specialize care, support groups for families

  45. Mental Retardation • What are the criteria for mental retardation? • What are the levels of mental retardation? • What are some of the Biological causes of retardation? • Where do those with Down Syndrome fit into the Mental Retardation picture? • What is Cultural Familial retardation?

  46. Also associated with Mental Retardation is AUTISM. So, what is it?

  47. Forms of Autism: The term "PDD" is widely used by professionals to refer to children with autism and related disorders; however, there is a great deal of disagreement and confusion among professionals concerning the PDD label.  Diagnosis of PDD, Autism, or any other developmental disability, is based upon the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994, the main diagnostic reference of Mental Health professionals in the United States of America. According to the DSM-IV, the term "PDD" is not a specific diagnosis, but an umbrella term under which the following specific diagnoses are defined:  Autistic Disorder Rett's Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger's Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS).

  48. Autism Autism is a developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. The result of a neurological disorder that affects functioning of the brain, Autism and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 250 individuals. Autism is four times more prevalent in boys than girls and knows no racial, ethnic or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle and educational levels do not affect the chance of Autism’s occurrence.