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Unit 4

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  1. Unit 4 Education

  2. Text A • Conversation: Registering at the Local College • 会话:在当地学校报到

  3. register:登记;注册;(邮件)挂号;register a birth  登记出生.register a letter(get a letter registered)  寄挂号信 (a registered letter 一封挂号信)register(oneself)with the police 在警察局登记 报考某个大学 to register for the entrance examination to…..university • local:

  4. local 地方的,本地的,当地的;local authority (市,县,区等)地方当局.local customs 地方风俗习惯.a local government 地方政府.local news 本地新闻. local protectionism 地方保护主义 We feel confident that our experience and local knowledge will enable us to give you entire satisfaction, whenever you may require our services. 我们自信,基于我们的经验与熟悉本地,必能为您提供满意的服务。

  5. The first thing Ann needs to do in the university is register after she arrives, but she has some problems with it. Rita, her roommates, is helping her out.

  6. The first thing Ann needs to do in the university is register after she arrives… • 定语从句:省略从句中充当宾语的连接词that • is register … be动词后面不能用动词原形,此处register为省略to的动词不定式。即:由 all, what 引导的主语从句或者主语被only, first, one, least 或形容词最高级修饰,而且从句中含有do时,其表语如果是动词不定式,则往往省去to。All I did was empty the bottle.    我所做的是倒空这个瓶子。What I wanted to do was drive all night.   我想做的是彻夜开车。 The only thing I could do was do it myself 。   我惟一能做的是我自己解决。

  7. 动词不定式省略to • 非谓语动词历来是考试中的重点,不定式结构在考点中常占很大比重。除这一点外,省略to的情况还有: • 感官动词和使役动词在主动语态中不需要带to,即我们常说的“一觉二听三让五看”:feel,listen to 、hear ,let、make、have, see、watch、notice、observe、look at.He noticed Tom take a branch of flowers in his hand.  他注意到汤姆手中拿着一束鲜花。The teacher has us write a composition every week.  老师要我们每周写一篇文章。 注:除let 外其他在变成被动语态时要加上to。The person was seen to enter the shop by us .  我们看见那个人进了那家商店。

  8. 常用的结构 may well do,may as well do (还是…好了)及but或except后接不定式时,如果它们前面有do便可省略to,其结构为can not do but…,can not help but…等句型,We might as well put up here for tonight.   我们不妨今晚就在这儿过夜。 She can do nothing but/except sing.   她除了唱歌什么也没做。There is nothing he could do but play all day long。   他除了整天玩,别无它事可做。

  9. 不定式做help后的宾语补足语或宾语时,可带to也可不带。Can I help(to) carry it for you?    我可以帮你搬吗?I helped him(to) mend the bike.   我帮助他修理自行车

  10. 在had better,would rather,rather than之后省略to。You'd better not tell him the news .   你最好不把这个消息告诉他。Rather than wait for anyone, I decided to go home by taxi.   我决定乘出租车回家而不愿等候任何人。

  11. 由并列连词and,except, but, than, or 连接两个以上的具有相同意义或功能的不定式时,第二个动词不定式不带to。I’d like to stay with you, help you and learn from you.  我想留下和你一起呆着,帮助你并且向你学习。She told us to stay at home and wait till she came back.  她告诉我们呆在家里一直等到她回来。

  12. 注:如果两个不定式表示对照或对比时,则不能省略to.To try and fail is better than not to try at all.  尝试而失败也比不尝试好。He hasn′t decided whether to quit or to stay.    他还没有决定是去还是留。To be or not to be, that is a question.    是生存还是死亡,这是一个问题。

  13. Why或Why not 开头表请求的结构中常跟上动词原形,省略to。Why not go out for a walk ?    为什么不出去散散步呢? • 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think等词后作宾补时,可以省去to be。例如:  He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。

  14. 例题: • You had better ______ your hair cut.A. had B. have C to get D to have • He ______ live in the country than in the city.A. prefers B. likes to C. had better D. would rather

  15. Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard.A. learnB. to learnC. learnedD. learning • He wants to believe anything but___ the medicine. A. to take B. takes C. take D. takes

  16. … but she has some problems with it • have some problems/ have a problem with …遇到困难,有问题 e.g. Every country may havesomeproblems with funny money. 每个国家都有一些伪钞的问题。 She must havea lot of problemswith the language.她在语言上一定有很多困难。 We haveaproblemwith our living arrangements.我们的住房安排有点问题.When you know you haveaproblemwith stress, try to solve it one step at a time.当你知道你有压力时,一步一步地解决。

  17. Rita, her roommates, is helping her out. • help out: 帮助...摆脱困难,排忧解难My father helped me out when I lost my job. 我失业时我父亲帮我摆脱困难。 He's always willing to helpout when we're short of staff. 我们职员人手不足时, 他总是急人之难. • help to:提高,促进 It will helpto improve your speaking.这会帮助提高你的口语能力。 His testimony would helpto clear up any doubt.他的证明有助于澄清所有疑团。

  18. 翻译 • The first thing Ann needs to do in the university is register after she arrives, but she has some problems with it. Rita, her roommates, is helping her out. • 抵达后,安入读大学要做的 第一件事就是报到,但是她 有些问题。她的室友丽塔在 帮她。

  19. Rita: Ann, you look upset. What’s up? Anything I can help you with? • Ann: The invitation letter says I should register after I arrive, but I can’t find how.

  20. you look upset • upset: vt. 使心乱,使苦恼 The news quite upset him.这消息使他心烦意乱.She is easily upset emotionally.她的心情容易烦乱.

  21. conversation skill • What’s up? • What’s up?和“How are you doing?”“How‘s it going?”以及“What’s new?”……,都是美国人常说的寒暄语,相当于what‘s going on?/what are you up to? 问对方忙什么/怎么样。 一般用于熟人朋友见面问候语。回答若有事,则直接说明;若无事,可以说Nothing或Not much. • 还有一种情况也很常见,就是对方也回答了一句“What‘s up?”。在这种情况下,“What’s up”几乎相当于“Hello”。 • What's up?"也常被用来问人家有什么事,比如别人登门拜访,你就可以用,意为“有何贵干哪”。

  22. conversation skill • Anything I can help you with? 用于提供帮助,即 offering help。其他例子: • A: Is there anything I can do? • B: Thanks, but I can manage. • A: Well, let me know if I can be of any help. • B: Thank you for your kindness.

  23. offering help • A: Shall I carry your baggage to your room? • B: Yes, please. • A: I'd like to recommend a good dentist. • B: Thanks. Who do you recommend? • A: Do you need help? • B: Would you mind putting my bag up on the rack?

  24. The invitation letter says I should register after I arrive, but I can’t find how. • invitation letter 邀请信 • invitation: n. 邀请 • should 情态动词, 和ought to 都为"应该"的意思,可用于各种人称。---Ought he to go?---Yes. I think he ought to.  表示要求,命令时,语气由 should(应该)、had better最好)、must(必须)渐强。 • but I can’t find how省略句,省略与前句相同的部分,即to register.

  25. 翻译 • Rita: Ann, you look upset. What’s up? Anything I can help you with? • Ann: The invitation letter says I should register after I arrive, but I can’t find how. • 丽塔:安,你看起来有些烦躁。怎么了?我能帮上忙吗? • 安:邀请信上说我到达后要去报到,可我找不到如何报到的说明。

  26. Rita: OK, let me tell you what you need to do. You should first go to the International Student Center to inform them of your arrival. Then register at the Information Center and get your ID card and PIN number.

  27. let me tell you what you need to do • let sb. do sth. 中do为动词不定式省略to • 本句中tell后面双宾语:you和宾语从句what you need to do • You should first … then… • first… then…用于描述顺序(sequence)。 • more expressions for sequence

  28. Firstly The first step is… First of all The first stage is To begin with, ... begins with Initially ... commences with Beforehand Before this Previously Prior to this Earlier At the same time, During Simultaneously When this happens While Sequence

  29. Secondly, Thirdly etc After this, Next, The next step is Then, In the next stage Subsequently In the following stage, Later Following this As soon as the committee has finished its work, ... Eventually, ... until ... Lastly ... finishes with ... Finally, concludes with In the last stage, The last step is ... sequence

  30. the International Student Center:留学生中心(responsible for students from other countries) • inform them of your arrival inform:通知;告诉;向…报告; inform oneself of (由调查中)知道 inform sb of sth 把某事通知某人 be well informed about sth 对某事消息灵通 You will be informed of the details at the appropriate time. 在适当的时候将把详情告诉你

  31. the Information Center 信息中心 • ID card身份证 student ID card 学生证 • PIN number

  32. 翻译 • Rita: OK, let me tell you what you need to do. You should first go to the International Student Center to inform them of your arrival. Then register at the Information Center and get your ID card and PIN number. • 丽塔:好,我来告诉你需要做什么。你应该先去国际学生中心告知他们你已经到达。然后到信息中心报到获取你的学生证和PIN码。

  33. Ann: What’s PIN number? • Rita: It’s your Personal Identification Number. Everyone in the university has one. With it, you can use all the online resources on and off campus.

  34. Personal Identification Number 个人身份识别码 • personal:adj. 个人的 a personal letter 私人信件.my personal affairs 我的私事personal history 履历a personal opinion 个人意见

  35. identification:身份的证明 an identification card 身份证He used a letter of introduction as identification.他用一封介绍信作为身份的证明. • identify: v. 识别,认出 e.g. identify the voice 声音辨认;identify oneself vi.证实自己的身份

  36. With it, you can use all the online resources on and off campus. • it: pron. 代替前面的名词PIN number • online resources 在线资源 • online:在线的 ~ help 在线帮助 ~shopping 在线购物 • resource:[常用复数]资源;物力;财力;resources in coal and iron煤铁的资源.develop natural resources开发自然资源.a country rich in resources资源丰富的国家.

  37. 翻译 • Ann: What’s PIN number? • Rita: It’s your Personal Identification Number. Everyone in the university has one. With it, you can use all the online resources on and off campus. • 安:什么是 PIN 码? • 丽塔:是你的个人身份识别码。学校里人人都有个代码。有这个代码,你就可以利用校内外所有的在线资源。

  38. Ann: I just need to punch it in, and then I can enter the numbers of the courses I want, right? • Rita: You got it. • Ann: What about the library? What do I need to do to use the library?

  39. I just need to punch it in… • punch:To depress (a key or button, for example) in order to activate a device or perform an operation:为了使某一装置运行或完成某项工作而按(例如,键或按纽): • punch the “repeat” key 按下“重复”键 • punch in the number on the computer. 按下计算器上的数字

  40. You got it. 你知道了。你办到了。例如: Yougotit. That‘s the way it is.你知道啦。就是这么回事。 Wrong, but you almost got it. Guess again.错,不过几乎猜对了。再猜一次。

  41. 翻译 • Ann: I just need to punch it in, and then I can enter the numbers of the courses I want, right? • Rita: You got it. • Ann: What about the library? What do I need to do to use the library? • 安:我只需输入这个代码,然后输入我想修读的课程号码,对吗? • 丽塔:没错。 • 安:那图书馆呢?要想用图书馆我需要做什么?

  42. Rita: First, you should go to the reception room. The staff will give you a form to fill out, which must be signed by your host department. After you return the completed form, you should be able to check the library resources and borrow books with you ID card.

  43. First, you should go to the reception room. • reception room 接待处 • reception n.接待,接见,欢迎;the reception of the guests接待(接见)客人.meet with a warm reception受到热烈欢迎.The new book had a favourable reception.这本书很受欢迎.

  44. The staff will give you a form to fill out, which must be signed by your host department. • staff: n. (全体)工作人员;(全体)职员;the teaching staff of a school学校的全体教师.the medical staff (of a hospital)(医院的)医务人员.the editorial staff编辑部.a member of the staff = a staff member一个职员.

  45. fill out a form 填表 • sign v.签署,签字于sign a treaty (contract, letter) 在条约(合同、信)上签字.sign one’s name to a check 在支票上签字 • host department:自己所在院系 host:主人,东道主;act as host at a dinner party 作宴会的东道主.the host country for the Olympic Games 奥运会东道国.Each of them lives with a Chinese host family. 这些学生住在中国的接待家庭中。

  46. …,which must be signed…非限制性定语从句 • 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:This is the house which we bought last month.   这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

  47. 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

  48. 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

  49. 例题 • Friendship is needed by all, _____ plays an important role in people’s lives. A. which B. that C. who D. it • Teachers, _____ work is rather hard, are being better paid than before. A. who B. that C. which D. whose

  50. Is this the reason _____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work ? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained • Uncle Li _____ I worked three years ago has retired now. A. who B. whom C. with whom D. to whom