III. Northern Peoples A. Southwestern Desert Cultures • Agriculture • Irrigation-based agriculture was introduced to Arizona from Mexico around 300 b.c.e. • the Hohokam constructed extensive irrigation works in the Salt and Gila valleys around 1000 c.e.
III. Northern Peoples • Anasazi (450-750 C.E.) • Developed a maize, rice, and bean economy • Constructed underground buildings (kivas) in the Arizona/New Mexico/Colorado/Utah region around 450–750 c.e. Kivas
III. Northern Peoples • Chaco Canyon • population of about 15,000 people • hunting, trade, and irrigated agriculture. • Exerted some sort of political or religious dominance over a large region. • Decline • The Anasazi civilization declined in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries • drought, overpopulation, and warfare. Chaco Canyon
III. Northern Peoples B. Mound Builders: The Mississippian Culture (700-1500) • Mounds • Built for elite burials • Residences for chiefs • Platform for temples
Geography • Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, New York and Ontario, and south to Florida. • Depended on hunting and gathering • Supplemented by limited farming of maize, beans and squash - Mesoamerica
III. Northern Peoples • Chiefs • The major Mississippian centers were ruled by hereditary chiefs. • Both religious and secular leaders
III. Northern Peoples • Urbanization • made possible by: • increased agricultural productivity, the bow and arrow, and expanded trade networks. 5. Cahokia • The largest Mississippian center was Cahokia, • population of about 30,000 around 1200 c.e. • Cahokia was abandoned around 1250, • perhaps because of climate changes and population pressure.
Read: Pedro de Cieza de Leon“Chronicles” The Human Record pages 406- 409 • Answer questions page 406 #1-4 • Read the entire document before answering the questions • highlight or underline the document as you find answers • Write the answers in your own words highlight
What did you learn about Incan Civilization from Pedro de Cieza de Leon?