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  1. BasicFBA http://media.esc14.net/ctl/lspraggins Feeding the Function Function-Based Behavior Support Planning

  2. Objectives • Review • FACT Process • Use a Competing Behavior Pathway to Identify Function-based behavior supports that: • Teach positive behaviors to replace problem behavior • Use antecedent strategies to prevent problem behavior & prompt positive behaviors • Correct & extinguish problem behavior efficiently • Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors

  3. Focus of this training series Basic FBA vs Comprehensive FBA

  4. Review #1 Steps in FBA? 1. Define observable behavior 2. ABC and function of the behavior 3. Hypothesize to summarize the behavior

  5. Review #2: Disruptive student A teacher in your school has come to you and said that she has a student in her class that is disruptive all of the time. What would you ask her in order to better define the behavior?

  6. Help her define “disruptive” Disruptive= ??? Examples--???? Non-examples ????

  7. Behaviors must be defined so they are…. • Observable • Measurable • Defined so clearly that someone unfamiliar with the student could identify the behavior.

  8. FACTS Purpose: • To identify when, where, and why the behaviors are occurring. • To develop a summary statement of the behavior that we can observe to determine the function (why) of a student’s behavior. • To narrow the focus to a specific pattern of behavior in order to develop an effective intervention

  9. FACTS • Steps: • Interview will ask about the student’s behaviors, the routines in which they occur, what happens before the behavior, and what happens after the behavior. How long? • 30-40 minutes • Remember to select only one function (based on the #1ranked response) for the hypothesis statement

  10. “Why do you need to observe after you have the information from the interview?” “What will you do with this information?”

  11. ABC Observation Purpose: To confirm the accuracy of the summary of behavior from the FACTS interview. To identify antecedents and outcomes that the teacher may have overlooked To verify the function of the student’s behavior. To develop the most accurate summary statement for effective intervention development.

  12. Summary of Behavior

  13. 4terms of Hypothesis/Summary Statement Setting Events/ “Set ups” Antecedent/ Trigger Problem Behavior Consequence/ Outcome Infrequent events that affect value of outcome Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger Observable behaviors of concern

  14. Functions That Behaviors Serve

  15. Review #3 Morgan Morgan is a 6th grade student who was referred by her teacher for being “disruptive” (refusing to do work, throws books/papers on floor, and says ‘this is lame’). This problem occurs most frequently when Morgan is asked to write paragraphs to answer writing prompts in social studies. Morgan can verbally answer most questions successfully in large group discussions, however she struggles with spelling and sentence construction. After she engages in “disruptive” behavior the teacher ignores Morgan and lets her get out of the writing task, as she has sent her to the office in the past. Her behaviors are most likely to occur when she has recently received negative or corrective feedback about writing tasks.

  16. Review For Morgan, what routine would you focus on for the FACTS and ABC observation? What antecedents will you be observing for? What consequences/outcomes will you be observing for? What is the setting event?

  17. Summarize Morgan’s Behavior: Routine: During ________________ Antecedent/Trigger: When _________ Behavior: Student does _________ Consequence/OutCome: because __________

  18. Summary of Morgan’s Behavior: Routine: During ________________ Social Studies Antecedent/Trigger: When.. Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/OutCome: Because.. Asked to write paragraphs Refuses to do work, throws book on floor, etc. Teacher does not ask her to write or sent to office Function: Avoid Difficult Task

  19. When is an FBA Completed? When you have completed a(n): • FACTS interview with the teacher (or other staff) • ABC observation to verify the information from the FACTS. • Summary of Behavior Table with a Final Hypothesis/Summary of Behavior that you are convinced is accurate. -If not convinced, do more observations and/or interview the student or other staff. -If still not convinced…get help (behavior specialist)

  20. Behavior Support Planning FBA BSP The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of comprehensive Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior

  21. Function-Based Interventions Start with FBA results = Summary of Behavior Summary of Behavior should include a detailed and specific description of: Targeted Routine Antecedents triggering behavior Setting events Problem Behavior Consequence/Outcome of Problem Behavior Function of Behavior

  22. Team Development • A behavior support plan is developed based on a completed FBA summary (which you have learned to do!!) • A team of people closely involved with the student come together to complete the competing behavior pathway • Teacher, parent, other staff, and behavior specialist

  23. Steps in Behavior Support Planning Step 1: Develop Competing Behavior Pathway Step 2: Develop Behavior Support Plan Step 3: Implementation Plan Step 4: Evaluation Plan Step 5: Follow-up Meetings to Review Progress

  24. Analyzing the Summary of Behavior • Read over the Summary of Behavior, but pay special attention to the Function identified for the problem behavior • The Function of Behavior will be central to identifying effective interventions to address: • Antecedent • Behaviors to Teach & • Consequences

  25. Start w/ Summary of Behavior from FBA Targeted Routine Antecedent Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior

  26. FBA: Summary of Behavior Targeted Routine Maintaining Consequence & Function Antecedent Problem Behavior FUNCTION FUNCTION is where student behavior intersects with the environment Function = Learning Student learns…. When (A), if I (B), then (C)… Function = how I benefit so I keep doing B

  27. Competing Behavior Pathway

  28. Competing Behavior Pathway Completed from FBA

  29. RACER Replace problem behavior with a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function Antecedent strategies to directly address triggers to prevent problems & prompt replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior Correct behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior Extinguish behaviors by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior) Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay off for the student

  30. So this is what we want…. Desired Behavior Natural Consequence Targeted Routine Antecedent Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior But… start with the Replacement Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?

  31. Why the Replacement Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior? 4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers 3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now 1. This is what we’re asking the student to do. Complete math problem Success, another problem 1A. This makes problem a little worse Given double digit addn problems Sent back to table (escape task) Homework not done Throws a Tantrum 2. This is what the student wants now. Raise hand & ask for break 5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior

  32. Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine Maintaining Consequence & Function Antecedent Problem Behavior FUNCTION Function should guide selection of replacement behaviors

  33. Understanding Replacement Behaviors Replacement Behaviors are: an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom Take some of the pressure off the teacher designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable alternate behavior

  34. Essential Characteristics of a Replacement Behavior An appropriate Replacement Behavior: Serves the same function as the problem behavior Iseasier to doandmore efficient than the problem behavior Replacement Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behavior Issocially acceptable

  35. Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors? Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods. Which is the best Replacement Behavior hide under her desk and be ignored sign for “more” to another student take completed work up to show the teacher move to sit by another student Use picture communication system to request teacher help Start w/ the Function 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

  36. Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors? Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping difficult tasks. Possible Replacement Behaviors: More rewards for doing tasks Asking for an easier task/ worksheet Asking to play w/ his Gameboy Requesting adult attention Asking to have soda after tasks are done Start w/ the Function 2. Is behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide escape from difficult task? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

  37. Competing Behavior Pathway: Replacement Behavior Example: Jason (from previous example) Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence Asked to do difficult tasks Avoid/Escape Difficult Task Crying Asking for an easier task/ worksheet NOTE: This antecedent is not specific enough

  38. Activity 1: Identify the Replacement Behavior Yes or No? Why? Whatare the critical features of a Replacement Behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable? 1. Serve same Function? Does it allow escape task? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?

  39. Check your Replacement Behavior for Morgan

  40. Activity 2: Jordan • With a partner go through each of the Competing Behavior Pathway Replacement Behavior options in Example #2  Yes or No & Why

  41. Developing Function-Based Interventions

  42. Behavior Support Planning Identify a range of interventions that address prevention (A), teaching (B) & consequences (C) You may not use them all, but it is good to identify multiple interventions options across A, B & C

  43. Teaching Replacement Behavior

  44. Teaching Behavior Teaching Identify skill(s) to teach Dual focus when teaching behavior Alternate Behavior Desired Behavior ALWAYS START with the Replacement Behavior -FIRST - Teach the alternate behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway -Teaching = Review & practice regularly -THEN – teach the Desired Behavior -this may be something to focus on immediately, or only after the student is fluent with the alternative behavior

  45. Teaching Behavior Don’t assume student already has Replacement Behavior in their skill set • Develop an observable definition of behavior • Identify examples & non-examples • Model/ Lead/ Test • Schedule Review & Practice of Skill/ Behavior Regularly

  46. Check Your “Teaching Behavior” for Morgan What are the critical features of Teaching Interventions? 1. First teach the Alternate Behavior Yes or No? Why? • Does Alt. Beh.: • Serve same Function? • Is it Easier? • Socially acceptable?

  47. Example: Teaching Behavior A B C Teach Morgan to raise her hand & ask for a break, instead of engaging in negative behavior. *By teaching Morgan an easier replacement behavior to get what he wants, we’re making the problem behavior Inefficient. Morgan will need frequent practice, precorrections, and prompts to help him get in the habit of using the alternate behavior

  48. Activity 3 - Jordan With a partner go through each of the Teaching Behavior options in Example #2  Yes or No & Why

  49. RACER Replace problem behavior with a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function Antecedent strategies to directly address triggers to prevent problems & prompt replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior Correct behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior Extinguish behaviors by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior) Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay off for the student

  50. Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine Maintaining Consequence & Function Antecedent Problem Behavior FUNCTION Function should guide selection of prevention strategies Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors