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  1. Writing Research Reports Dr Kithsiri Edirisinghe MBBS, MSc,MD ( Medical Administration ) Master Trainer Australia, TAE ( Australia) IVLP ( USA)

  2. Objective of the report • As a part of the research process • Planning phase - Proposal – 40% • Implementation Phase - collect data-20% • Dissemination Phase – Report , Paper presentation- 40% • Final step in the esearch Module • To pass the exam • First step in publications / paper presentation

  3. How obtain maximum success • Show you know about the research process • First read a lot • Understand what you are doing • You should know what you have done • Be more general • Follow the writing format • Neat and tidy • Know the rubric and have copy by your side and aim for the highest • Find a good research report – hard and soft copy • Use proper referencing • Do not , do not plagiarize - no copy and past

  4. Contents of a Research report • Cover section • Inner section • End section

  5. Outer section • Cover page • Inner page • Abstract • Acknowledgment • Table of contents • List of tables and figures • List of acronyms

  6. Cover page • OUM format • Use exactly the same format • Topic • Name of the researcher • No degrees please • Programme • Institute • Year • “No pictures please” • Statement of fulfillment

  7. Inner page • Title /topic • Quote • Statement of fulfillment • Institution

  8. Abstract • Summery of the whole research • Collection of conclusions of all chapters • Italic • Justified • Be very careful- read many times • First impression counts

  9. Acknowledgement • Simple • Short • Be professional • Not be emotional

  10. Table of contents • All 03 sections are captured • Cover section – numbering • End section – roman numbers • Inner section – number 01 from Introduction • Chapter Number & name the chapter –Bold • Sub topics • Page number • Alignment important

  11. Table of contents List of tables and figures • Page wise with in order of presentation • Table/figure number, topic , page number • List of annexure – In roman letters • Two lists • One for tables • The other for figures

  12. List of Acronyms • All short forms used in the research • Ex. • ANC • PPH • ARV • HIV

  13. Inner part- THE CHAPTERS • Chapter I • INTRODUCTION • Chapter II • LITRETURE REVIEW • Chapter III • METHODOLOGY • Chapter IV • DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION • Chapter V • DICUSSION • Chapter VI • CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

  14. Inner part- THE CHAPTERS • Numbering • Chapters in order 1 to 6 • Topic center - • First Chapter II • Then • LITRETURE REVIEW • Sub topics • 1.1, 1.2 , 1.3 …ect • Sub ..sub topic • 1.1.1 • 1.1.2 …..etc • Font • Arial / Calibri / NTR • Size – 14 topic & 12/11 • Line spacing - 1.5 • In-between para -2 • Justified • Margins - 1 X 1X 1X 1.5 ( left)

  15. Inner part- THE CHAPTERS • Tables/ figures • Number Name of the table ( left alignment / bold) • Number • 1 ,2,3 or • 1.1, 1.2 the chapter number • Name • Short • Source • Central • Presentation • Graphs • Pie charts • Others (see the chart ) • Tables • Simple • Attractive

  16. Writing style • Objective • Not subjective • Third party • Past tense for all chapters except for recommendation • Grammar correction • spelling • In text referencing • (Chan I.W., Chung R.W.Y 1999) • Chan I.W., Chung R.W.Y, (2010) , Meeting Psychological needs of HIV Aids Patients, Hong Kong.

  17. Inner part- THE CHAPTERS • Chapter I • INTRODUCTION • Chapter II • LITRETURE REVIEW • Chapter III • METHODOLOGY • Chapter IV • DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION • Chapter V • DICUSSION • Chapter VI • CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

  18. Chapter 01 INTRODUCTION

  19. Chapter 01 INTRODUCTION • Back ground • Significance • Justification • Problem statement • Research questions • Objectives • Limitations • Definitions

  20. 1.1 Background • Funnel effect • Identifying phenomena • Explaining the phenomena • Describe Study setting • Health industry – local / foreign / regional • Move on to your areas gradually • 04 pages

  21. 1.2 Significance • Justification • Importance of this study area • To the health industry • To nursing profession • To the society

  22. 1.3 Problem statement • Describe the problem in short form • A Paragraph • Problem definition • Problem analysis – cause and effect diagram

  23. Statement of the problem • The statement of the problem is the first part of the paper to be read after the title and abstract. • It's like a lead on a newspaper story. • It hooks the reader and gives context to what follows. 

  24. Problem statement • “GH Ragama is a second largest TH on Sri Lanka • It caters for 1000 clinic patients , 200 OPD patients and 1200 inward patients • The clinic services clinic service consits of …… • There is overcrowding of the Medical clinics of the teaching hospitals in Sri Lanka 2012, causing many difficulties to the patients , staff and the image of the hospitals , which needed immediate rectification.”

  25. 1.4 Research questions • Main content of the research problem • The research question provides the context for the research study and reveals what the researcher is trying to answer.  • The summery of questions • Maximum 03 - ideal 02 • Answer to why in the phenomena • More focused questions • During whole of the research you will have to answer these question • Success of the research ( and the of course the marks)

  26. 1.5 Objectives • General objective • Topic of the research • Specific objectives • Segments of the research • SMART • ..\IIHS Acedemic Programmes\Health Research 2014\Session 04 Objectives and questions\PP 04 - Research process C 2014.ppt

  27. 1.6 Limitations • What does not capture in this study • In the same areas • May not be answer all questions • So need demarcate what you can do • What you cannot • Definitions

  28. 1.7 Definitions • Define all key words • Specially in health services • Use accepted definitions • May need to give reference • All laymen should be able to read your research and should understand well

  29. 1.8 Conclusion • The chapter conclusion • Summery of key findings of the chapter • Introduction to the next chapter – the literature review

  30. Inner part- THE CHAPTERS • Chapter I • INTRODUCTION • Chapter II • LITRETURE REVIEW • Chapter III • METHODOLOGY • Chapter IV • DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION • Chapter V • DICUSSION • Chapter VI • CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

  31. Chapter IILITRETURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 body 2.3 conclusion

  32. 2.1 Introduction • Introduce to the chapter by indicating the following • General objective of the research • About the subtopics of the chapter

  33. 2.2 body • Indicate all published researches and articles • As a funnel effect • Start broadly and End up in your topic area • Place all models , theories and finding previously • Show that there is gap still exists • That why you are doing this • Show relevance to your profession

  34. The literature review • A review of the literature is an essential part of your academic research project. • The review is a careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question. 

  35. What is literature review? • Literature means writings and a body of literature refers to all the published writings in a particular style on a particular subject.  • In research, a body of literature is a collection of published information and data relevant to a research question • Showing you are doing a logical and valid research • Re – searching - RESEARCH

  36. The literature review • All good research and writing is guided by a review of the relevant literature. • Your literature review will be the mechanism by which your research is viewed as a cumulative process. • That makes it an integral component of the scientific process. 

  37. Usefulness of Literature review • Avoids duplication and specify the subject • Show different aspect of the problem and strengthen the problem analysis • Provides facts to make the research efficient and effective 4. Provides guidelines in each step, benefits and constrains that will occur in performing the study 5. Provides comparative data for the research

  38. Sourcesaccess my VLE • Primary sources • Are the origin of information under study, fundamental documents relating to a particular subject or idea. • Often they are first hand accounts written by a witness or researcher at the time of an event or discovery. • These may be accessible as physical publications, as publications in electronic databases, or on the Internet.  • Secondary sources • Are documents or recordings that relate to or discuss information originally presented elsewhere. • These, too, may be accessible as physical objects or electronically in databases or on the Internet.

  39. Mechanics of a Literature Review The method of performing Literature review • Your literature review will have two components: • A search through the literature • The writing of the review

  40. The method of performing Literature review • Decide on the topics to search and sources • Organize folders for each section , • Type key words on your topic , question and the areas of research • Download / read • Write in the chapter • How literature has helped the study • Write reference, properly and a list of reference in alphabetical order • Write from broad areas to your topic ( Funnel effect ) • Place all models/ theories in this • Introduce all related researches in your areas in this chapter

  41. Method • Obviously, the search is the first step. However, you must remember that you love knowledge and that academic databases can be seductive. • You could spend untold hours clicking around the bibliographies of your favorite collections. • You may have fun, but you might not advance your literature review. 

  42. How to do it ? • The solution? Have your research question written down and at hand when you arrive at the computer to search databases or a library catalog. Prepare in advance a plan and a preset time limit. • Finding too much? If you find so many citations that there is no end in sight to the number of references you could use, its time to re-evaluate your question. It's too broad. Finding too little? On the other hand, if you can't find much of anything, ask yourself if you're looking in the right area. Your topic is too narrow

  43. Leading edge research • What if you are trying to research an area that seems never to have been examined before? Be systematic. • Look at journals that print abstracts in that subject area to get an overview of the scope of the available literature. Then, your search could start from a general source, such as a book, and work its way from those references to the specific topic you want. • Or, you could start with a specific source, such as a research paper, and work from that author's references. There isn't a single best approach. 

  44. Take thorough notes •  Be sure to write copious notes on everything as you proceed through your research. It's very frustrating when you can't find a reference found earlier that now you want to read in full. It's not hard to open up a blank text document in WordPad (Windows) or TextEdit (Macintosh) to keep a running set of notes during a computer search session. Just jump back and forth between the Web browser screen and the notepad screen. 

  45. Using resources wisely • Practice makes perfect. Learn how and then use the available computer resources properly and efficiently. • Log onto the Internet frequently. Visit your research resources regularly. • Play with the discipline resources. • Enter the databases. • Scope out the reference desk materials.  • Identify publications which print abstracts of articles and books in your subject area. • Look for references to papers from which you can identify the most useful journals. Identify those authors who seem to be important in your subject area. • Identify keywords in your area of interest to help when you need to narrow and refine database searches. • Read online library catalogs to find available holdings. Be sure to write copious notes on everything. 

  46. Getting ready to write •  Eventually, a broad picture of the literature in your subject area – an overview – will begin to emerge. Then it's time to review your notes and begin to draft your literature review. But, where to start? Suppose you have several WordPad or TextEdit files full of notes you've written. And a dozen real books and copies of three dozen journal articles. Pile them on a table and sit down. Turn to your research question. Write it out again at the head of a list of the various keywords and authors that you have uncovered in your search. Do any pairings or groupings pop out at you? You now are structuring or sketching out the literature review which is the first step in writing a research paper, thesis or dissertation. 

  47. Writing the lit review • Writing the lit review. One draft won't cut it. Plan from the outset to write and rewrite. Naturally, you will crave a sense of forward momentum, so don't get bogged down. Don't restrict yourself to writing the review in a linear fashion from start to finish. If one area of the writing is proving difficult, jump to another part. Edit and rewrite. Your goal is to communicate effectively and efficiently the answer you found to your research question in the literature. Edit your work so it is clear and concise. If you will be writing an abstract and introduction, leave them for the last. 

  48. Communicating ideas • Communicating ideas is the objective of your writing, so make it clear, concise and consistent. Big words and technical terms are not clear to everyone. They make it hard for all readers to understand your writing. Consider their use very carefully and substitute a 50-cent word for a $5 word wherever possible. Style and writing guides are worth browsing if you are unsure how to approach writing. Always re-read what you have written. Get someone else to read it. Read it aloud to see how it sounds to your ear. Then revise and rewrite. Style guides and how to cite sources »

  49. Writing the conclusion • .Throughout your written review, you should communicate your new knowledge by combining the research question you asked with the literature you reviewed. End your writing with a conclusion that wraps up what you learned in the literature review process.  • While the interaction between the research question and the relevant literature is foreshadowed throughout the review, it usually is written at the very end. The interaction itself is a learning process that gives researchers new insight into their area of research. The conclusion should reflect this. 

  50. 2.3 Conclusion • The chapter conclusion • Summery of key findings of the chapter • Introduction to the next chapter – the literature review