Security • Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset. However, Windows NT and its successors are designed for security (including on a network) and multi-user PCs, but were not initially designed with Internet security in mind as much, since, when it was first developed in the early 1990s, Internet use was less prevalent. • These design issues combined with programming errors (e.g. buffer overflows) and the popularity of Windows means that it is a frequent target of computer worm and virus writers. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier'sCounterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six months. In 2005, Kaspersky Lab found around 11,000 malicious programs—viruses, Trojans, back-doors, and exploits written for Windows. • Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month (usually the second Tuesday of the month), although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. In versions of Windows after and including Windows 2000 SP3 and Windows XP, updates can be automatically downloaded and installed if the user selects to do so.
Abstract nouns can be countable or non-countable (mass). Ideas/Concepts/Ideals Belief Dream Justice Truth Faith Liberty Knowledge Thought Information Culture Trust Dedication Common Abstract Nouns Emotions/Feelings Love Hate Anger Peace Pride Sympathy Movements/Events Progress Education Hospitality Leisure Trouble Friendship Relaxation States/Attributes Bravery Loyalty Honesty Integrity Compassion Charity Success Courage Deceit Skill Beauty Brilliance Pain Misery
Nouns with the following suffixes are often abstract: -tion -ism -ity -ment -ness -age -ance -ence -ship -ability -acy
Following is a list of some common nouns which are usually or always used as noncount nouns: Advice weatherclothinghailfruit** Information homework waterfurniturework* Foods housework rain jewelry Bread evidence snowluggage ButterIntelligence wind machinery CheeseSlang ignorance air MoneyCoffee vocabulary knowledge DewMusic meat significance FogPostagemilkfun Scenerypepper enjoyment courage Heat traffic rice happiness Honesty humiditytransportation salt Sadness luck lighting baggage sugar
A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies.
There are some irregularformations for noun plurals. Some of the most common ones are listed below.
Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.
Instructions: Circle the nouns in these sentences. The cat and the dog were playing in the park. Misha plays the piano and the drums. David said to take the cake, cookies, and cups to the picnic. Danielle went to see the Avatar at the theater. Love and peace are better than hate and war. My family plays as a team. Instructions: In each sentence a noun is underlined. Put “A” if it is abstract, and “C” if it is concrete. ___ Democracy is the best kind of government. ___ The baby beluga whale was just born. ___ Curiosity killed the cat. ___ Patience is a virtue. ___ The school needed new desks. ___ There is nothing to fear but fear itself. ___ The Chinese culture is ancient. ___ Yesterday, I saw a good movie. ___ Trust is a two-way street. ___ Eat your vegetables to stay healthy.
What is the correct plural of the word? How many (person) ……..study English as a second language? Five (woman)……….. opened a computer service company. Even (child) …………enjoy learning on the Internet. Most basketball players are 6 (foot)………… tall or more. Which breed of (sheep)……….. produces the finest wool? My (tooth) …………are sensitive to the cold. At daylight savings time, we have to change our (watch) ……. The boys went fishing and caught 10 (fish) …….. There are 10 (man) ……..in the Maintenance Department. The (wife) keep their (knife) ……..on the (shelf) . ………….. (Goose)…………. are water birds. (Piano) ……….are difficult to move . There are some (policeman)……….. in my house! I've lost my (luggage) ……………….