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Introduction: Bhutan

Introduction: Bhutan

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Introduction: Bhutan

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  1. Introduction: Bhutan

  2. Country Information • Location : Sandwiched between India and China • Size : 38,394 1 square kilometers • Population : 0.650m • 79% : subsistence farming • 1960 : Planned socio-economic development launched • Languages : Dzongkha & English (official) • Dzongkhags / Districts : 20 • Gewogs / Blocks: 201

  3. Level of Development • Development philosophy: Gross National Happiness • GDP per capita: USD 700 • Human Development Index: 196 • Life Expectancy: 61 • Population growth rate: 2.5

  4. Role of Education in the context of Development • Education recognized both as a basic right and as a prerequisite for achieving wider social, cultural and economic goals. Reflected in Education Sector Strategy: Realizing Vision 2020

  5. Data source & Quality • Population and Housing Census of Bhutan 2005 • Annual Education Statistics 2006 • Bhutan Living Standard 2000, 2004 • Household and Income Survey 2002 • EMIS (under development)

  6. Educational Development • 1960: 11 schools with 400 students • 2006: 512 schools with 1,53,911 • NFE: 646 centers with 18550 students • After Jomtien (1990) & Dakar (2000) • EFA initiated • Enrolment Ratio: GER primary 102.1% NER 79.4% NER basic 75% GER basic 84 • Govt. stepped up initiatives and expansion Unreached: • Access: Difficult terrain and widely dispersed population • High unit cost of construction in remote areas

  7. Education Structure Forms • General Education: • Monastic Education • Non-formal Education General Structure: • School education divided into 3 phases • Phase I: 11 yr of basic education (PP-10) • Phase II: 2 yrs of higher secondary education (11&12) • Phase III: 3 yrs of tertiary education (degree) • Primary education: 7yrs + Secondary: 4yrs

  8. Education Financing • 1st Plan =9.4/107.1 : 8.8% • 2nd Plan =35.7/ 202.2 :17.7% • 3rd Plan =90.0/ 475.2 :18.9% • 4th Plan =134.6/ 1106.2 :12.2% • 5th Plan =519.1/ 4648.3 :11.2% • 6th Plan =778.8 / 9559.2 :8.1% • 7th Plan =1738.0/ 15590.7 :11.1% • 8th Plan=3292.7/ 34981.7 :9.4% • 9th Plan =10209.40/70000 :14.5%

  9. Educational Policy, Laws, and Legislation • Basic education up to grade 10 is enunciated in the constitution of Bhutan as the fundamental right of every child. • Free and demand driven as number of schools and classrooms increase depends on the enrolment of students. • Inclusive and child friendly

  10. Assessment of EFA coordination

  11. EFA National Action Plan (Draft) • EFA goals integrated in the National Education Plan (9th & 10th Plan) • Development of strategy for MDA in process • No separate budget for EFA, MDA • Actions to be taken -Technical working group to be formed

  12. Prepare Work plan and time schedule • EFA Info (Support from Regional Team) –Jan 2007 • Support from local partners (UNICEF, NSO, country Dev Info focal point, Dept of planning) • Adapt and customize templates to fit with local contexts • Set up a EFA data team to collect, compile and analyze input to the EFA MDA report • Identify the sources of data relevant to EFA • Prepare appropriate analysis • Identify disaggregated data across all EFA goals • Identify studies, surveys, reports or other ways in which each goal could be evaluated • Identify challenges, gaps and disparities for each goal and target group

  13. Issues • Unavailability of data • Need to explore more on which data will be available especially data from surveys and studies • Require in-depth analysis of data from surveys which required strong expertise in statistical package and data analysis • Inadequate human resources to collect all information required • Some cases, requires additional and new surveys and studies • Requires more training and support for Data analysis

  14. Analysis of six Goals • ECCD Policy on ECCD (Draft) Private Domain Urban Areas • Challenges to identify & build upon existing child rearing & socialization practice which contributes positively to the growth & development of young children in line with traditional home life.

  15. To benefit positively from the increasing availability of new media, including radio, television and the internet • Meeting the ECCD needs within a finite resource package for the Education Sector

  16. UPE/UBE To enroll & retain children who, for various reasons, have been unable to enter school. These include those living in remote parts of the country, children with disability, children facing learning difficulties, & those requiring other forms of special care & attention

  17. Retain those who enroll • The expansion of primary Education & growth in other sub-sector in education will add pressure on limited resource • Teacher shortage • Upgrading the professional competencies of the existing teaching force

  18. Life skills & life long learning Designing & Planning a comprehensive model of technical and vocational education program which matches the needs of the employers and is sufficiently attractive for the students Systematic improvement of the standard and quality of training

  19. The attitude and expectation of school leavers who considers working with hands as being menial and demeaning • Availability of sufficient resources to both improve quality of training and to expand training capacity

  20. Gender • The enrolment of girls in general education is about 50% • Only at Higher secondary level there is observable gender imbalance • Gender issues mainstreamed in the national plan • Literacy • Adult literacy rate: 59.6% • Less male participation in NFE programme

  21. Quality of Education • 10 member independent review commission formed • Quality of teachers by CERD • Quality of Education monitoring decentralized to Dzongkhag

  22. TRASHI DELEK!