Chapter 8 War and Strife
Security Issues • Global trends, see: http://www.humansecurityreport.info/ • Human security includes economic/social well-being, literacy, adequate health care, safe environment, etc. • Security dilemma • anarchic international system, absence of centralized authority • one state’s becoming more secure diminishes another state’s security • permanent condition of tension, power conflicts • Key questions: • Is self-help only alternative? • Can states mitigate effects of security dilemma? • How can insecurity be managed short of war?
Causes of War • Individual • aggressiveness, misperceptions, mass attributes, communication failure • State • Capitalist states, nondemocratic regimes, domestic politics, scapegoating (diversionary war), struggle between groups for economic resources, ethnonational challengers • System • Anarchy, lack of arbiter, cycles of war and peace, power transitions, aggressive international capitalist class • Most product of interaction of various factors at different levels of analysis
Types of Wars • General war = conquer and occupy enemy territory, all available weapons, targeting military and civilian • massive loss of life, widespread destruction • many participants, multiple major powers • Civil war = conflict within state between factions to control government; may have international repercussions, often leading to intervention • Ethnonationalist movements -- to gain autonomy, secede • Limited war = fought for limited objectives, selected weapons and targets; object less than total subjugation
Modes of Warfare • Conventional means • key developments (since 1980s) • precise targeting, miniaturization/lighter-weight weapons • Increase in international armaments market • Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) = nuclear, chemical, biological; lethal and indiscriminate • Controversy whether nuclear weapons/proliferation destabilizing • Asymmetric warfare = between parties of unequal strength; weaker party tries to neutralize opponent’s strength by exploiting weaknesses • Guerilla warfare = irregular militaries hide in civilian population, use hit and run to wear down enemy • Terrorism = use of violence by groups or states usually against noncombatants to intimidate, cause fear, or punish victims to achieve political goals
Just War Tradition • Just cause (jus ad bellum) • Self defense, defense of others, massive violation of human rights (humanitarian intervention) and declaration of intent by appropriate authority (Security Council) • Correct intentions (end abuses, establish just peace) • Exhausted all other alternatives (war as last resort) • Just conduct (jus in bello) • Differentiation between combatants and noncombatants • Violence proportionate to ends • Undue human suffering avoided • Humanitarian intervention (responsibility/imperative to protect) controversial
Liberal Approach to Security • International institutions coordinate actions to manage power • Collective security • Unlawful aggression met by united action • States join together against aggressor • Arms control and disarmament • Fewer weapons means greater security • Regulation of arms proliferation (arms control) • Reducing amount/type of arms (disarmament) • Reduces costs of security dilemma
Realist Approach to Security • Reliance on force or threat of force to manage power • Balance of power • States make choices to increase capabilities and undermine capabilities of others, thereby maintaining balance of power (internal and external) • Alliances are tool to enhance power and check power potential of rival (example of external balancing) • Deterrence • War can be prevented by the threat of use of force