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Text Structure

Text Structure

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Text Structure

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  1. Text Structure English 7/8

  2. Sequence—Also known as chronological order • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJJGh7YuemU • The author describes a series of events or steps.

  3. Sequence Questions • What sequence of events or steps is being described? • What is the beginning step or event? • What is the timespan of the sequence? • What is the final step or outcome?

  4. You might also see bullets, dates, subheadings, and chapter titles.

  5. Signal Words and Phrases • after (that)afterward • as • at the same time • before • earlier • finally • first • following • initially • last • later on • meanwhile • next

  6. not long after • now • on (day) • previously • prior to • second • soon • then • until • when • while

  7. Proposition and Support • The author proposes an opinion or idea and supports it with evidence. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RheUG9ci0FM

  8. Proposition and Support Questions • What is the author proposing? • What are the author’s reasons?

  9. Signal Words and Phrases • additionally • certainly • evidently • furthermore • in conclusion • in fact • in the first place • moreover • most important • not only . . . but • of course • should surely • the facts show • without a doubt

  10. Also look for statistics, expert opinions, and anecdotes. (short stories used for evidence)

  11. Compare and Contrast • The author tells how two things are like and how they are different. • http://www.shmoop.com/video/compare-and-contrast

  12. Compare and Contrast Questions • What things are being compared? • What is it about these things that are being compared? • What do they have in common? • In what ways are they different?

  13. You might also see graphs and charts, such as bar, line, and pie.

  14. Signal Words and Phrases • unlike • same • similarly • unlike • whereas • while • yet • alikealthough • both • but • compared with • conversely • different from • even though • however • in contrast • same • similarly • Also look for superlatives, such as better, bigger, and fewest • in the same waylikewise • on the other hand • neither . . . nor

  15. Description • The author describes a topic by listing its characteristics, features, and examples. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpD4lcbeSJo

  16. Description Questions • What person, place, thing, event, or concept is being described? • How is it described? • How would you now describe it in your own words?

  17. You might also see diagrams, illustrations, and inset definitions.

  18. Signal Words and Phrases • also • characteristics • for example • for instance • has/have • in addition • including • in fact • in particular • like specifically • such as • to illustrate

  19. Several adjectives may be used. The subject, or synonyms for it, may be repeated throughout this type of text.

  20. Cause and Effect • The author shows the relationship between an event and how or why it happened. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bhp41tRebU

  21. Cause and Effect Questions • What happened? • Why did it happen? • Is there more than one cause? • Is there more than one effect?

  22. You might also see flow charts and timelines.

  23. Signal Words and Phrases • as a result • because • brings about • caused by • consequently • due to • if . . . then • in order to • led to • reason why • since • so therefore • thus

  24. Problem and Solution • The author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions to the problem. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P-PnCBQ60PA

  25. Problem and Solution Questions • What is the problem? • Why is this a problem? • How can the problem be solved?

  26. Signal Words and Phrases • answer • concern • difficulty • dilemma • future challenge • issue • one option • possible solution • problem • question • solve • solution • so that