slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Puma PowerPoint Presentation


276 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Panther Puma Felis concolor Cougar Mountain Lion

  2. Classification The Six Kingdoms

  3. Terminology • Taxonomy Species • Genus Morphology • Taxon Classification • Phylogeny Rank • Binomial nomenclature • Hierarchical classification (Use the e-book chapter 1 to find information)

  4. Classification

  5. Identifying, Naming, and Classifying Species • To date, scientists have identified about 2 million species on Earth. Although 2 million is a large number and new species are discovered every day, it is thought that this is just a fraction of the total number of species on Earth.

  6. Source: Holt Modern Biology

  7. Binomial Classification System. • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: (Division for plants) Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Primates • Family: Hominidae • Genus:Homo • Species:sapiens

  8. Examples of Binomial Classification

  9. Cheetah: Acinonyx jubatus Tiger: Panthera tigris

  10. Jaguar: Panthera onca Lion: Panthera leo

  11. Felis domesticus Felis silvestris House cat European: Wild cat African wild cat Asiatic Wildcat: Felis silvestris Felis libyca

  12. Bobcat: Lynx rufus Canadian Lynx: Lynx canadensis 1700’s Carolus Linneaus used a method of naming organisms using TWO words. This is the Binomial system of Nomenclature still used today.

  13. Robins Erithacus rubecula English Robin Turdus migratorius, also called North American Robin

  14. Mnemonic • King Kingdom • Philip Phylum • Came Class • Over Order • For Family • Good Genus • Soup Species

  15. Hierarchy. • Like a ladder or nesting circles • Goes from most general to more specific • Each progressively smaller group is called a TAXON (Pl Taxa.) • Taxonomy: Taxis = arrangement, nomos = law.

  16. Mammalia Cats Chordates Sharks & cats Animals Shark, cats, worms

  17. Hierarchy of the Catholic Church. Pope Cardinals Bishops Priests Lay People

  18. 10. A The table below shows the classification of a praying mantis, an insect that preys on smaller insects. a. What is the scientific name for the praying mantis? b. Which is the broadest category of classification for the praying mantis? c. What is the narrowest rank and taxon that the praying mantis and the grey wolf have in common? Do you think these two organisms are closely related? Why or why not?

  19. Determining How Species Are Related

  20. Vocabulary • Ancestor • Anatomy • Physiology • Phylogenetic tree

  21. Ancestor: an organism (or organisms) from which other groups of organisms are descended

  22. Origins of the Giant Panda An American anthropologist and his colleagues in China report the first discovery of a skull from the earliest-known ancestor of the giant panda that lived in south China some two million years ago. A and D show the skull and upper teeth of the newly found 'pygmy' giant panda, while B and E belong to Ailuropoda baconi, a later ancestor, and C and F to today's giant panda The Telegraph, 19 Jun 2007

  23. Looking for relatedness Fossils.

  24. Fossil Evidence Infer Which similarities might prompt you to think that the oviraptor and the cassowary are more closely related than was commonly thought?

  25. Chimpanzee

  26. Comparison of Embryo Anatomy a) sea lamprey, b) a turtle, c) a chicken, d) a domestic cat, e) a human.

  27. Homologous Structures

  28. Physiology Both used to be considered Rodents, The protein Insulin in guinea pigs is so different from other rodents that suggestions have been made that they have be reclassified into a taxon of their own.

  29. DNA Evidence Figure 1.11 DNA evidence suggests that the turkey vulture (A) is really more closely related to the wading stork (B) than it is to the vultures of Asia and Africa. Both turkey vultures and storks are the only birds known to urinate on their legs, which they do to help keep their bodies cool during hot weather as well as to kill bacteria and other pathogens that cling to their legs.

  30. Figure 1.12 This phylogenetic tree shows the evolutionary relationships among various species of plant-eating hooved mammals. Interpret To which other organism shown in the phylogenetic tree is Cervus elaphus most closely related?

  31. In summary Relatedness can be determined by: • Looking at the fossil record. • Checking anatomical structures such as embryonic development • Homologous structures • Physiology • Genetics – DNA sequences

  32. The Importance of Classification to Technology, Society, and the Environment • When scientists are looking for sources of pharmaceutical drugs, hormones, and other important medical products, they can narrow their search to species closely related to organisms already known to produce valuable proteins or chemicals.

  33. Mad cow to Mad people? • Understanding phylogeny can help scientists trace the transmission of disease and develop and test possible treatments. Diseases can spread more rapidly between species that share certain genetic characteristics. For example, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, (CJD) a disease that affects the nervous system, may be transmitted from cows to people.

  34. Kingdoms and Domains • Key Terms • Structural diversity • Prokaryotic • Eukaryotic • Dichotomous key • Autotroph • Heterotroph

  35. The Six Kingdoms Until the 1800s, the highest category for classifying organisms was the kingdom and there were only two: Plants and Animals. In the 1800s, single-celled organisms were added to the classification system through the creation of the kingdom Protista, bringing the total to three. In the first half of the 1900s, some single-celled organisms were found to be extremely small and without a cell nucleus, so a new kingdom, Bacteria, was created for them, bringing the total to four. By the 1960s, it was known that fungi were so different that they also needed their own kingdom, bringing the total to five. During the 1990s, with new genetic information, the bacterial kingdom was divided in two, giving the current six-kingdom system.

  36. Aristotle’s system

  37. Since 1969 most biologists have recognized 5 kingdoms. New findings suggest that a portion of the Monera may belong in a new group.

  38. Describe one other difference between the prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell shown above.