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DNA Study Guide

DNA Study Guide

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DNA Study Guide

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  1. DNA Study Guide

  2. Question 1 The cells that make up the skin of an individual have some functions different from the cells that make up the liver because a. all cells have a common ancestor. b. different cells have different genetic material. c. environment and past history have no influence on cell function. d. different parts of genetic instructions are used in different types of cells.

  3. Question 1 Notes • All of your cells have the same DNA (No B) • Cells do not have ancestors (No A) • The environment can influence phenotype (height – air quality, sex of sea turtles) (No C) • Not all genes are expressed in every cell only parts are depending upon the cell and its location. (Yes D)

  4. Question 2 Fruit flies with the curly-wing trait will develop straight wings if kept at a temperature of 16°C during development and curly wings if kept at 25°C. The best explanation for this change in the shape of wings is that the a. genes for curly wings and genes for straight wings are found on different chromosomes. b. type of genes present in the fruit fly is dependent upon environmental temperature. c. environment affects the expression of the genes for this trait. d. higher temperature produces a gene mutation.

  5. Question 2 Notes • Genes for the same trait as we know are found on the same chromosomes. (No A) • The gene itself is not dependent upon the temperature. (No B) • A mutation would cause an abnormal change. (No D) • The environment can influence how genes are expressed (Yes C)

  6. Question 3 The production of certain human hormones by genetically engineered bacteria results from a. inserting a specific group of amino acids into the bacteria. b. combining a portion of the human DNA with the bacterial DNA and inserting this into bacteria. c. crossing two different species of bacteria. d. deleting a specific amino acid from human DNA and inserting it into bacterial DNA.

  7. Question 3 Notes • Genetic engineering is when a gene from one organism is inserted into the DNA of another organism and it expresses that gene. • Example: bacteria can produce human insulin • This means only choice B can be correct

  8. Question 4 Which phrase does not describe cells cloned from a carrot? a. They are genetically identical. b. They are produced sexually. c. They have the same DNA codes. d. They have identical chromosomes.

  9. Question 4 Notes • Clones are identical (same genes, same DNA, same chromosomes) So, A, C, and D are then a No and only choice B is left.

  10. Question 5 Genes involved in the production of abnormal red blood cells have an abnormal sequence of a. ATP molecules. b. amino acids. c. sugars. d. bases.

  11. Question 5 Notes • ATP and sugars have nothing to do with mutations or changes in DNA. (No A or C) • We learned that gene mutations result from a change in a base. (This makes D a better choice than B). • All proteins, traits, genes, etc. can be traced back to the order of bases in DNA (Yes D)

  12. Question 6 Klinefelter’s syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the body cells of humans. This extra chromosome occurs in the gamete as a result of a. an error in the process of cloning. b. an error in meiotic cell division. c. a gene mutation. d. replication of a single chromosome during mitosis.

  13. Question 6 Notes • When chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, this is called nondisjunction. It can cause genetic disorders such as Klinefelter’s, Turner’s, and Down syndrome. Makes only choice B correct.

  14. Complete the rest of the study guide and check your answers.