What you will learn: • What are references & bibliographies. • Why provide references & bibliographies. • Different styles of references. • When to use a reference. • How to reference: • within your assignment. • at the end of your assignment (i.e. bibliography)
What are references & bibliographies? • When you summarise, refer to or quote from an author’s work you need to give them credit. You have to provide a reference. • A bibliography is a list of books (or other sources of information) that you have referenced or consulted when writing your assignment.
Why provide references & bibliographies? • To acknowledge use of other people’s work and avoid accusations of plagiarism. • To allow readers of your work to see how your argument was assembled and what your influences have been. • To gain extra marks!
What is Plagiarism? Webster’s Dictionary defines Plagiarism as follows: • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own. • to use (another's production) without crediting the source. • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. • to commit literary theft! • Your essay has to be your own work! • Cutting and pasting is NOT allowed. • Every time you use a source, make a note of its details so that you can include it in your bibliography.
Different styles of reference • There are many different styles of reference. • The Harvard Style is one of the most popular and is used in many schools and universities. • You must always be consistent – use the same style throughout your assignment.
When should you use a reference? • You must provide a reference in the text of your assignment every time you quote directly or indirectly from someone else’s work, idea or viewpoint.
How to reference?(within your assignment) • The author’s name & year of publication are placed in brackets at the point of reference: e.g. Girls are considered to create fewer problems than boys (Furlong 1985)
How to reference? (within your assignment) • If the author’s name has occurred naturally in your own text, then you can omit it from the brackets: e.g. Beckett and Corkin (1991) suggest that girls fear failure.
How to reference? (within your assignment) • If you are referencing a direct quotation you should also include the page number(s) on which the quote appears: e.g. …and the “sombre, disturbing” aspect of Picasso’s art (Golding 1981 p.63) are further emphasised… Gorbachev (1988 P.84) describes his concept of economic reform as “an all-embracing, comprehensive character”…
How to reference? (at the end of your assignment) • You must provide a reference list or bibliography at the end of your assignment. • This will include all the sources you have referenced as well as other sources you have consulted. • There are rules governing how bibliographies are written.
Bibliographies (Books) • Author/editors surname (in capitals) comma followed by first name initial(s) (with a full stop after each initial) • For two authors, put and between the names. For three or more, separate the names with commas and put and before the final name. • Year of publication (in round brackets) • Full title of book (in italics) then full stop • Edition of work (if more than one edition) full stop then comma • Place of publication then colon • Publisher then full stop • Include series and individual volume number, if relevant, in round brackets after the publisher, then full stop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6jk7L4dxcI
Bibliographies(Articles) • Author’s surnames (in capitals) comma, then first name initial(s) (with a full stop after each initial) • If there are more than three authors, list only the first one, followed by “et al” • Year of publication (in round brackets) • Title of article (in mixed case) then full stop • Title of journal (in italics) then comma • Volume number • Issue number (in brackets) then comma • Page numbers in the form of p. for page or pp. for more than one page, followed by the number(s) then full stop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1QDm4NUZS8&feature=relmfu
Bibliographies(Websites) • Author(s)/editor(s) surname (in capitals) comma, then first initial(s) with a full stop after each initial. • Year of publication (in brackets) • Title of webpage (in italics) • Format (e.g. online) (in square brackets) then full stop • Place of publication (if this is given) then colon • Publisher then full stop • “Available from:” and the web address • “Accessed” and the accessed date (in square brackets) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_B4NEyCcx4&feature=plcp
Web2 • Twitter- screenshot • Blogs – line count of posting ( unless too long then URL) • YouTube – time of quote All must still include the normal referencing for Internet sources – URL, Date accessed etc • Social Networking – Facebook etc ( not an academic source – check with examining body)