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The Dialectic of

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The Dialectic of

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  1. The Dialectic of Bottom-up and Top-downEmergence in Social Systems 報告者:廖于萱、張筠、曾一平、劉季寧

  2. Author: Christian Fuchs (christian@igw.tuwien.ac.at), Wolfgang Hofkirchner (hofi@igw.tuwien.ac.at) and Bert Klauninger (bk@ssi.at)

  3. Emergence and Self-organization In the course of evolution one system is linked to another—the old to the new—by emergence. Emergence brings about the the change from one system in one phase of evolution to anther system in another phase.

  4. Upward & Downward • The super-system level both enables and constrains activities at the lower system level. • The old system is overcome, but conserved by the new one.

  5. → Diachronic ↑ Synchronous • The systems have subordinate subsystems and are themselves components of high level systems. • They do not determine the development at the higher level in detail.

  6. 回顧 • The individual in Modern Society • Constructivism, Structuralism or Interactive Dualism

  7. The individual in Modern Society(個人在現代社會下的意義) • Free will • Act rationally and responsibly • tied to the idea of private property?!

  8. Constructivism(建構/構成 主義) • 主要概念: Cognition is constructed in an autonomous manner and is not determined by social/physical reailty →Muturana and Varela • 侷限: not consider the dialectical relationship of the individual/consciousness and society/being.

  9. Structuralism(結構 主義) • 主要概念: The relationship of being and consciousness in a structuralist manner by assuming that being determines consciousness →The Frankfurt School Theodor W. Adorno • 侷限: the dialectical relationship of society and the individual is not sufficiently considered

  10. Individual-society Dualism(個體 ─ 社會 互動/二元論) • 主要概念: • Subjective and objective knowledge • Super-personal level: developed from an individual’s back ground, but then acquires an independent existence and exists separately from the person. →Popper • 侷限: Whether the cosmos can be divided into the three parts Popper envisaged?

  11. 3.3 A Dialectical and Emergentist View 3.3.1. Individual Information • 假定:Consciousness is neither solely an individual construction nor solely a reflection of society. • Karl Marx:the dialectical relationship of being and action/consciousness • Herbert Marcuse:emerge

  12. The Theory of Self-organization (自我組織理論) • Evolutionary system (演化系統) • Unified Theory of Information

  13. Individual information individual values, norms, conclusions, rules, opinions, ideas, and belives.

  14. Social information

  15. 【Culture】習慣規章 得以合法、具正當性 -明確定義 • 【 Politics 】 規律一致的事物獲得授權 -影響決策判斷 • 【 Economy 】:生產分配 自然資源的配置 -物質的傾向、分配

  16. 共同運作下的社會關係 • Individual consciousness &action • Social information -相互辯證的re-creation • 經由互動之後,產生浮現效應 (動態) • 以【團體活動】為例

  17. The world-system • 全球化下的結構性危機 • 如:氣候變遷、全球暖化… • G6→G8→G20(中國大陸、印度…) • 顯示出東亞體系的經濟市場漸漸受到重視 • 經由競爭過程,形成優勢地位的轉變 • 共同運作的社會關係,而建立一套新秩序

  18. The End