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HAWC Science

HAWC Science

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HAWC Science

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  1. HAWC Science • Survey of 2p sr up to 100 TeV energies • Probe knee in cosmic ray spectrum • Identify sources of Galactic cosmic rays • Extended Sources • The Galactic Plane and Molecular Clouds • Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebula • Galaxy Clusters • Transient Sources • Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) • Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) • Solar Energetic Particles • Fundamental Physics Measurements • Tests of Lorentz Invariance at High Energies • Indirect Detection of Dark Matter • Increase Scientific Return of Other Projects • Identifies new and flaring TeV sources for VERITAS and IceCube • Extends GLAST and VERITAS spectra to higher energies

  2. g e m 4 meters 150 meters From Milagro to HAWC High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) • Increase Altitude to 4300 m from 2650 m • Increase Area to 22000 m2 from 4000 m2 • Reuse Milagro PMTs and electronics • HAWC ~15x Sensitivity of Milagro • HAWC: Detect Crab in ~ 1 day • Milagro: Detects Crab in ~1/2 yr HAWC Design: Single layer of 900 PMTs (4 m depth vs Milagro’s 2 layers at 1.5 and 6 m) optically separated by curtains or in individual tanks e m g

  3. Higher Altitude is Closer to Shower Max. 4300m 2600m Difference between 2600m (Milagro) and 4300m (HAWC): ~ 6x number of particles HAWC’s median trigger energy ~1 TeV vs Milagro’s ~4 TeV

  4. 30 GeV 70 GeV 230 GeV Gammas 270 GeV 20 GeV 70 GeV Protons Gamma/Hadron Separation Size of HAWC Size of Milagro deep layer Energy Distribution at ground level Larger Area implies better angular resolution + better cosmic ray background rejection

  5. Lateral Distribution • Protons have BROAD lateral distribution of muons • Gammas have NARROW lateral distribution of electrons

  6. HAWC sensitivity calculation • Milagro MC is used to calculate HAWC sensitivity increase of 15x • Milagro Crab flux is within 10% of ACT flux • Milagro Cosmic Ray flux is within 30-50% of balloon flux and is used to correct the HAWC background calculation • B.O.T.E.C. (back of the envelope calculation) is similar • Energy Threshold 3x lower than Milagro (Approx. B gives 6x more particles, but density of PMTs is less) • Sensitivity increase depends on spectrum, but is ~3x • Area for Triggering is 5x larger than Milagro • Sensitivity increase is ~2x • Angular resolution improves because of increased lever arm, better core location, … • Sensitivity increase is 1.5-2x • Gamma/hadron rejection improves due to increased probability of detecting muon away from the core • Sensitivity increase is >1.5x ~6 ~10 ~15

  7. HAWC Sensitivity calculation • Milagro MC is used to calculate the HAWC sensitivity increase of 15x • Milagro Crab flux is within 10% of ACT flux • Milagro Cosmic Ray flux is within 30-50% of balloon flux and is used to correct the HAWC background calculation Milagro MC of gamma/hadron separation parameter for gamma rays, cosmic rays, and data

  8. Gamma-Ray Sensitivity to Crab-like Source • VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC, Whipple sensitivity in 50 hours, (~0.2 sr/year) • GLAST sensitivity in 1 year (4p sr) • HAWC, Milagro, sensitivity in 1 year (2p sr) ~ 6 TeV GeV

  9. Survey Sensitivity

  10. Comparison of g-ray sensitivity between the IACT and HAWC 2 year sky surveys as a function of source angular diameter. The HESS detected Galactic sources are shown. HAWC Extended Source Sensitivity Extended Source Sensitivity Angular Resolution

  11. Orphan Flare HAWC & Transients Flaring Blazars detectable by HAWC at 5 Crab in 10 minutes TeV 10 keV Ecutoff= 700 260 170 GeV GRBs out to z~0.3 (0.7) for 10-6 (10-5) ergs/cm2 Plus Solar Energetic Particles and … Full Moon X-ray binary periods unobstructed by Moon or Sun

  12. HAWC and GLAST Transient Sensitivity GRB <1 MeV Flux 10-6 GLAST and HAWC sensitivity for a source of spectrum dN/dE=KE-2 above 10 GeV z=0 no E cutoff z=0.1 Eexp~700GeV z=0.3 Eexp~260GeV z=0.5 Eexp~170GeV 10-8 10-10 AGN flares 1-15 x Crab 10-12

  13. Site Location is Sierra Negra, Mexico • 4100 m above sea level • Easy Access • 2 hr drive from Puebla • 4 hr drive from Mexico City • Existing Infrastructure • Few km from the US/Mexico Large Millimeter Telescope • Power, Internet, Roads • Sierra Negra Scientific Consortium of ~7 projects • Excellent Mexican Collaborators • ~15 Faculty at 7 institutions have submitted proposal to CONACYT for HAWC • Experience in HEP, Auger, and astrophysics (including TeV)

  14. LANL Design of Pond Top of Pond at 4098 m a.s.l. Topographic Survey of Site Excavate ~102,000 m3 reusing ~78,000 m3 with ~24,000 m3 excess

  15. LANL Engineering Study of Pond Cover Floating Cover with Access Ports for Installation and Repairs Steel Building with Structural Supports in the Water Individual Plastic Tanks of ~4m height and ~4m diameter in 30 x 30 array

  16. HAWC Proposal and Budget • Joint Proposal to NSF and DoE High Energy Physics • Additional Collaborators – University of New Mexico, University of Utah and International Partners • Construction Budget • Milagro Construction Budget was $3.4M ($2.7M from NSF and $0.7M from DoE HEP)

  17. Conclusion • Milagro has demonstrated the power of the water Cherenkov technique • Detection of Crab Nebula and Mrk 421, known TeV sources • Discovery of new TeV sources • 1st detection of TeV diffuse emission from the Galactic plane • Future: HAWC • Building on expertise with Milagro • Design improvements in Size, Altitude, Curtains . . . • 15x Milagro sensitivity • Milagro /HAWC complementary to other particle astrophysics observatories

  18. HESS Milagro TeV gamma ray TeV g-rays: A New Window on the Sky 0.1 GeV Milagro 10 TeV gamma-ray