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HAWC Science

HAWC Science

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HAWC Science

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  1. HAWC Science • Survey of 2p sr (half the sky) up to 100 TeV energies • Probe knee in cosmic ray spectrum • Identify sources of Galactic cosmic rays • Extended Sources • The Galactic Plane and Molecular Clouds • Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebula • Galaxy Clusters • Transient Sources • Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) • Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) • Solar Energetic Particles • Fundamental Physics Measurements • Tests of Lorentz Invariance at High Energies • Indirect Detection of Dark Matter • Increase Scientific Return of Other Projects • Identifies new and flaring TeV sources for VERITAS and IceCube • Extends GLAST and VERITAS spectra to higher energies

  2. g e m 4 meters 150 meters From Milagro to HAWC High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) • Increase Altitude to 4100 m from 2650 m • Increase Area to 22000 m2 from 4000 m2 • Reuse Milagro PMTs and electronics • HAWC ~15x Sensitivity of Milagro • HAWC: Detect Crab in ~ 1 day (5) • Milagro: Detects Crab in ~1/2 yr HAWC Design: Single layer of 900 PMTs (4 m depth vs Milagro’s 2 layers at 1.5 and 6 m) optically separated by curtains or in individual tanks e m g

  3. Higher Altitude is Closer to Shower Max. 4100m 2600m Difference between 2600m (Milagro) and 4100m (HAWC): ~ 5x number of particles HAWC’s median trigger energy ~1 TeV vs Milagro’s ~4 TeV

  4. Lateral Distribution • Protons have BROAD lateral distribution of muons • Gammas have NARROW lateral distribution of electrons

  5. HAWC sensitivity calculation • Milagro MC is used to calculate HAWC sensitivity increase of 15x • Milagro Crab flux is within 10% of ACT flux • Milagro Cosmic Ray flux is within 30-50% of balloon flux and is used to correct the HAWC background calculation • B.O.T.E.C. (back of the envelope calculation) is similar • Energy Threshold 3x lower than Milagro (Approx. B gives 6x more particles, but density of PMTs is less) • Sensitivity increase depends on spectrum, but is ~3x • Area for Triggering is 5x larger than Milagro • Sensitivity increase is ~2x • Angular resolution improves because of increased lever arm, better core location, … • Sensitivity increase is 1.5-2x • Gamma/hadron rejection improves due to increased probability of detecting muon away from the core • Sensitivity increase is >1.5x ~6 ~10 ~15

  6. HAWC Sensitivity calculation • Milagro MC is used to calculate the HAWC sensitivity increase of 15x • Milagro Crab flux is within 10% of ACT flux • Milagro Cosmic Ray flux is within 30-50% of balloon flux and is used to correct the HAWC background calculation Milagro Milagro MC of gamma/hadron separation parameter for gamma rays, cosmic rays, and data

  7. Gamma-Ray Sensitivity to Crab-like Source • VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC, Whipple sensitivity in 50 hours, (~0.2 sr/year) • GLAST sensitivity in 1 year (4p sr) • HAWC, Milagro, sensitivity in 1 year (2p sr) ~ 6 TeV GeV

  8. HAWC Angular Resolution Angular Resolution

  9. Orphan Flare HAWC & Transients Flaring Blazars detectable by HAWC at 5 Crab in 10 minutes TeV 10 keV Ecutoff= 700 260 170 GeV GRBs out to z~0.3 (0.7) for 10-6 (10-5) ergs/cm2 Plus Solar Energetic Particles and … Full Moon X-ray binary periods unobstructed by Moon or Sun

  10. HAWC and GLAST Transient Sensitivity GRB <1 MeV Flux 10-6 GLAST and HAWC sensitivity for a source of spectrum dN/dE=KE-2 above 10 GeV z=0 no E cutoff z=0.1 Eexp~700GeV z=0.3 Eexp~260GeV z=0.5 Eexp~170GeV 10-8 10-10 AGN flares 1-15 x Crab 10-12

  11. Site Location is Sierra Negra, Mexico • 4100 m above sea level • Easy Access • 2 hr drive from Puebla • 4 hr drive from Mexico City • Existing Infrastructure • Few km from the US/Mexico Large Millimeter Telescope • Power, Internet, Roads • Sierra Negra Scientific Consortium of ~7 projects • Excellent Mexican Collaborators • ~15 Faculty at 7 institutions have submitted proposal to CONACYT for HAWC • Experience in HEP, Auger, and astrophysics (including TeV)

  12. columns ~115Ml Filtered water roof 170m 6m 150m Polypropylene-nylon liner Curtains 8” Hamamatsu R5912 PMTs HAWC Baseline Design • Fiducial volume: 150m x 150m x 4m • 4,100 m elevation • 5m PMT spacing under 4m of water • ~35mCrab sensitivity over the northern sky (5s in 2 year)

  13. LANL Design of Pond Top of Pond at 4098 m a.s.l. Topographic Survey of Site

  14. LANL Engineering Study: Pond Cover Floating Cover with Access Ports for Installation and Repairs Steel Building with Structural Supports in the Water Individual Plastic Tanks of ~4-5m height and ~4-5m diameter in 30 x 30 array

  15. Tanks • Simplifies construction, deployment. Modular design. • Auger Tanks were manufactured in Mexico by Rotoblas • Can purchase special 4m tanks off the shelf. • Possibly special order 5m tanks, fabricated locally in • Mexico.

  16. HAWC Proposal and Budget • Joint Proposal to NSF and DoE High Energy Physics • Additional Collaborators – University of New Mexico, University of Utah and International Partners • Construction Budget • Milagro Construction Budget was $3.4M ($2.7M from NSF and $0.7M from DoE HEP)

  17. Conclusion • Milagro has demonstrated the power of the water Cherenkov technique • Detection of Crab Nebula and Mrk 421, known TeV sources • Discovery of new TeV sources • 1st detection of TeV diffuse emission from the Galactic plane • Future: HAWC • Building on expertise with Milagro • Design improvements in Size, Altitude, Curtains . . . • 15x Milagro sensitivity • Milagro /HAWC complementary to other particle astrophysics observatories

  18. HESS Milagro TeV gamma ray TeV g-rays: A New Window on the Sky 0.1 GeV Milagro 10 TeV gamma-ray

  19. Survey Sensitivity

  20. 30 GeV 70 GeV 230 GeV Gammas 270 GeV 20 GeV 70 GeV Protons Gamma/Hadron Separation Size of HAWC Size of Milagro deep layer Energy Distribution at ground level Larger Area implies better angular resolution + better cosmic ray background rejection