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Dengue Fever

Dengue Fever

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Dengue Fever

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  1. Dengue Fever Chrisitna Vivelo

  2. Overview • Virus • Transmitted by mosquito bite • Estimated 100 million cases worldwide each year • No cure or vaccine, can only treat the symptoms • Not fatal (in contrast to DHF) • SYMPTOMS: • Sudden high dever (104-105 C) • Red rash • Second rash similar to measles later on in disease • Fatigue • Muscle ache • Nausea http://vietnam.adoptionblogs.com/weblogs/dengue-fever-warning-in-hanoi/comment-page-1

  3. History • First record: “water poison” in Chinese Medical Encyclopedia from Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) • 1789: First confirmed case-Benjamin Rush • 20th century: Sir John Burton Cleland discovers transmission by mosquitoes • WWII allows disease to spread globally

  4. Global Outlook Possible reasons for increased outbreak Rapid population growth Inadequate urban infrastructure Migration from rural to urban environments Increase in solid waste- may serve as larval habitats for mosquitoes http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact/en/

  5. Transmission • Mosquitoes: Aedesaegypti and Aedesalbopictus • Must feed on human during 5 day period when person is symptomatic • Virus incubates inside mosquito 8-12 days • Mosquito remains infected for duration of its lifetime http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aedes_aegypti_during_blood_meal.jpg

  6. The Virus • Virus family: Flaviviridae • DENV-1 through DENV-4 • ssRNA, genome 11,000 bp long • Codes for: 3 structural proteins, 7 nonstructural

  7. Viral Proteins • E (envelope) protein- involved in attachment of virus to host cell • prM/M protein- involved in formation of viral particle • The Mannose Receptor- on macrophage-binds to glycoproteins on viral membrane http://www.abcam.com/Mannose-Receptor-antibody-ab64693.html

  8. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) • More severe symptoms of Dengue fever • Additional symptoms: bleeding, followed by shock-like state • Fatal • Occurs when patient is infected a second time by a different DENV • http://nabc.ksu.edu/content/factsheets/category/Viral%20Hemorrhagic%20Fever

  9. Treatment/Prevention • Can only treat symptoms • 2003- Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative • July 2010- NIH announces clinical trials for 19 possible vaccines • Environmental approaches: clean water supply, waste management, using screens and netting to keep mosquitoes out of homes

  10. Research • Modifying yellow fever vaccine YF-17D to fight Dengue virus • Mycophenolic acid and ribavirin- inhibit dengue virus replication by causing defective viral RNA production

  11. Refrences • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/dengue • Lai CJ, Monath TP (2003). "Chimeric flaviviruses: novel vaccines against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis". Advances in virus research 61: 469–509. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(03)61013-4. PMID 14714441. • Miller JL, deWet BJM, Martinez-Pomares L, Radcliffe CM, Dwek RA, et al. (2008) The Mannose Receptor Mediates Dengue Virus Infection of Macrophages. PLoSPathog 4(2): e17. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.004001 • Takhampunya R, Ubol S, Houng HS, Cameron CE, Padmanabhan R (2006). "Inhibition of dengue virus replication by mycophenolic acid and ribavirin". J. Gen. Virol. 87 (Pt 7): 1947–52. doi:10.1099/vir.0.81655-0. PMID 16760396. • Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever • World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact/en/