Chapter 10Motivation in Learning and Teaching Ryan Brumbelow Ginny McAnear Jennifer Dixon
What is motivation? • Motivation is an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior. • Intrinsic Motivation is motivation associated with activities that are their own reward. • Extrinsic Motivation is motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments. • Locus of Causality is the location – internal or external – of the cause of behavior
Four General Approaches to Motivation 1. Behavioral Approach A Reward is an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of behavior. An Incentive is an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior. 2. Cognitive and Social Cognitive Approach expectancy x value theories: explanations of motivation that emphasize individuals’ expectations for success combing with their valuing of the goal 3. Socio-cultural Conceptions Legitimate peripheral participation is genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are undeveloped and contributions are small
Approaches continued … 4. Humanistic Approaches Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: Four lower level needs – deficiency needs – survival, safety, belonging, and self-esteem Three higher level needs – being needs – intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and self-actualization Self-actualization: self-fulfillment, or the realization of one’s personal potential
Needs: Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness Self determination theory: suggests that we all need to feel competent and capable in our interactions in the world, to have some sense of control over our lives, and to be connected to others Need for autonomy: is the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions Cognitive evaluation theory: suggests that evens affect motivation through the individual’s perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information
Needs… The Need for relatedness is the desire to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with others. Needs: Lessons for Teachers *teachers should limit controlling messages *allow and encourage students to make choices *help students plan actions to accomplish self selected goals *hold students accountable *provide rationales for limits, rules, and constraints *acknowledge that negative emotions are valid reactions to teacher control *use non-controlling, positive feedback
Goal Orientations and Motivations • Many theories include goals as key elements in motivation. A Goal is an outcome or attainment an individual is striving to accomplish. A Goal Orientation is a pattern of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school. Mastery Goal is a goal to improve and to learn Task Involved Learners focus on task. Performance Goals are when the goal is to demonstrate abilities to others. Ego Involved Learners are concerned with the evaluation of their work by others. Work Avoidant Learners want to complete work was quickly as possible with as little effort as possible.
Interests and Emotions • Two kinds of interests: personal (individual) and situational (trait and state) Personal interests: enduring tendency to be attracted to or to enjoy specific subjects – seek information and have more positive attitudes toward school Situational interests: short lived aspects of the activity, texts, or materials that catch and keep attention – if students are not initially interested in a subject or activity, they may develop interests as they experience success
Arousal: Excitement and Anxiety in Learning Arousal is physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, and wide awake. Individuals are naturally motivated to seek novelty, surprise, and complexity. Curiosity arises when attention is focused on a gap in knowledge. (Piaget’s concept of disequilibrium)
Anxiety Anxiety is general uneasiness, a feeling of tension, feeling of self-doubt Trait anxiety is the tendency to be anxious. State anxiety is anxiety provoking situations. Anxiety interferes with learning and test performance: focusing attention, learning, testing.
Coping with Anxiety(for Teachers) • Use competition carefully • Avoid situations in which highly anxious students will have to perform in front of large groups • Make instructions clear • Avoid unnecessary time pressures • Remove some pressure from major tests/exams • Alternatives to written tests • Teach self-regulation strategies
Beliefs and Self-Schemas Entity view of ability assumes that ability is a stable, uncontrollable trait – a characteristic of the individual that cannot be changed Incremental view of ability suggests that ability is unstable and controllable – an ever-expanding repertoire of skills and knowledge Attribution theories of motivation describe how the individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses, can be characterized in terms of three dimensions (1. locus, 2. stability, 3. controllability)
Beliefs and Self- Schemas continued… • Self efficacy is a belief about personal competence in a particular situation such as learning or teaching a specific subject. • A sense of efficacy, control, or self-determination is critical if people are to feel intrinsically motivated. • Learned Helplessness is the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one’s efforts will lead to failure.
*************************** • Mastery-oriented students are students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable. • Failure-avoiding students are students who avoid failure by sticking to what they know, by not taking risks, or by claiming not to care about their performance. • Failure-accepting students are students who believe their failures are due to low ability and there is little they can do about it.
Motivation to Learn • “the tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and try to benefit from them” • 1. source of motivation: • intrinsic (optimum) vs. extrinsic (diminishes motivation) • 2. Type of goal set: • learning goal vs. performance goal • 3. Type of involvement: • task-involved vs. ego-involved • 4. achievement motivation: • motivated to achieve vs. failure-avoiding • 5. likely attributions: • controllable vs. uncontrollable • 6. beliefs about abilities: • Incremental view vs. entity view
Hopeless Geraldo He won’t even start the assignment as usual. He keeps saying “I don’t understand.” “This is too hard.” When he answers your questions correctly, he guessed or he doesn’t really know. Geraldo spends most of his time staring into space; he is falling farther and father behind. Use extrinsic motivation to develop sense of intrinsic motivation. He is a work-avoidant learner. A Failure-accepting student. He exhibits learned helplessness.
Safe Sumey She checks with you about every step – she wants to be perfect. You once gave her bonus points for doing an excellent color drawing of the apparatus, and now she produces a work of art for lab every time. But Sumey won’t risk getting a B. If it isn’t required or on the test, Sumey isn’t interested. Performance goals. Failure-avoiding student. Views ability as fixed (entity view of ability). She prefers extrinsic motivation factors. Ego-involved learner. Performance goals.
Satisfied Spenser He is interested in the project. He knows more about it than you do. Evidently he spends hours reading about chemistry and performing experiments. But his overall grade in your class is between B- and C+ because when you were studying biology, Spencer was satisfied with the C he could get on tests without even trying. Sets learning goals. Intrinsically motivated. Need for autonomy. Work-avoiding. Failure-avoiding. Strong sense of self-efficacy.
Defensive Daleesha • She doesn’t have her lab manual – again, so she has to share with another student. Then she pretends to be working , but spends most of her time making fun of the assignment or trying to get answers from other students when your back is turned. She is afraid to try because if she makes an effort and fails, she fears that everyone will know she is “dumb”. Work-avoidant student. Failure-avoiding student on her way to becoming failure-accepting student. Views ability as fixed. Sets performance goals. Lacks legitimate peripheral participation.
Anxious Amee • She is a good student in most subjects, but she freezes on science tests and “forgets” everything she knows when she has to answer questions in class. Her parents are scientists and expect her to become one too, but her prospects for this future look dim. Anxiety! (state anxiety) Lacks self-efficacy in this particular subject. She experiences a lack of deficiency needs- belonging and self-esteem ( with her family ).