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Union of Myanmar: Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
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Union of Myanmar: Introduction

Union of Myanmar: Introduction

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Union of Myanmar: Introduction

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  1. Union of Myanmar: Introduction

  2. Images of Myanmar

  3. Images of Myanmar • Myanmar or Burma?: Politics of the Name • From most powerful kingdom of SEA to one of the poorest countries in the world • Military, Fear Politics, Armed Ethnic Struggles, Drugs • Democracy, Boycott and Humanitarian Intervention

  4. Pre-Colonial Burma • One of the strongest and the largest political kingdoms in the Mainland Southeast Asia • Multiethnic in nature (Pyu in the North/Ayeyarwady 1 BC then Chinese invasion and Mon in the South 9BC(Brought in Theravada Buddhism): The pre Burman/Bhama period • 11 AD Burman Kingdom replaced the gap of the Pyu (Pagan) then suppressed Mon, then 13th century suppressed by Mongol/China, then several small Kingdoms (Ava (N), Mon (S), Mrauk U (W), Shan(NE)) • 16th consolidation: Burmese Empire (entire Burma and Chiang Mai + Siam) Burman = 68% of population

  5. British Colony (1886-1948) • 3 major wars + devastation ( not part of the Commonwealth) • 1st war: conquest of Burmese empire brought to the land adjacent to British India 1824-26, 2nd war (1852), 3rd war (1885) • Administered as a province of British India til 1937 • Economic and social transformation: rice growing and export, and plural society (ethnic division of labor  importing Indian and Chinese to work)  many riot due to crash of tradition – no respect to Buddhist culture • Political Legacy: The Burma Proper and the Frontier (divided and ruled) (ethnic state and ethnic role in colonial administration – the Karen)

  6. Post-Colonial Burma • 1940s the Thirty Comrades by Aungsa found the Burma Independence Army trained in Japan • Japanese Invasion, and British reoccupation 1945 (some ethnic groups served in the British Army). The Burma Independence Army switched side to the British • Pre-1948 preparation of the Independence Aung San and several cabinets were assassinated • 1948 Union of Burma with Panglong Agreement (Ethnic state had right to be independence in the next 10 years) • 1962 Coup by Gen. Newin (The Burmese Way to Socialism) 1962-1974 ruled by revolutionary council, 1974-1988 by Burma Socialist Programme Party as one party system backed by the military (Tatmadaw) (The country was “closed”). • Ethnic Insurgency and Communist Insurgency

  7. Contemporary Myanmar • 1988 uprising (economic mismanagement)  student uprising and escalated armed ethnic conflicts (Karen)  Coup by State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)  martial law, 1989 Myanmarsification, 1997 SLORC turned to State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) • 1990 election (first in almost 30 years) The National League for Democracy (NLD) won 392/489 SLORC annulled the result and house arrest NLD leader – Aung Saan Suu Kyi (released with restriction) • 1997 joined ASEAN • 2006 relocation of Capital City from Rangoon to Naypyidaw (administrative and military area) • 2007 Another uprising (democratic and monks)  big crack down and country was closed from outside report (internet was blocked) • 2008 Referendum for Constitution, 2010 Election • 2008 Nargis Cyclone, 130,000 people died – the government’s reluctant to receive assistance (fearing of connecting with the democratic and ethnic groups)

  8. Contemporary Issues • Drug and Armed Ethnic Struggle (Shan and Karen), Cease fired agreement with certain groups as proxy war  human trafficking and displaced persons (human security) the Unocal/Chevron case the company was sued in a US court on the violation of human right in another country • Politics of fear, corruption, and tensions among military elite • Poorest country of the region • International Boycott but regional economic cooperation (China, India, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand)  Constructive Engagement? (natural resources) : Helping the junta or the civil society ?

  9. References • Wikipedia: Burma • Aung San Suu Kyi (1991). Freedom from fear: and other writings New York, NY Viking. • Callahan, M. P. (2003). Making enemies : war and state building in Burma. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press. • Fink, C. (2001). Living silence : Burma under military rule New York, Zed. • Kingsbury, D. (2005). South-East Asia: A Political Profile. Melbourne, Oxford University Press. • Owen, N. G., Ed. (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press • Skidmore, M. (2004). Karaoke fascism: Burma and the politics of fear Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. • Taylor, R. H. (1987). The State in Burma. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.