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Interactive Systems Technical Design

Interactive Systems Technical Design. Seminar work: Sensing & Sensors Hannu Kaski Jukka-Pekka Laitinen Miika Vahtola. Introduction 1/4. Sensing Webster: “To perceive by the senses, to detect automatically especially in a response to physical stimulus”

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Interactive Systems Technical Design

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  1. Interactive Systems Technical Design Seminar work: Sensing & Sensors Hannu Kaski Jukka-Pekka Laitinen Miika Vahtola ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  2. Introduction 1/4 Sensing • Webster: “To perceive by the senses, to detect automatically especially in a response to physical stimulus” • Way to achieve knowledge of the world (temperature, force, acceleration…) • Human senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste • Vision usually seen as the primary sense and hearing secondary • Exceptions to general rules like blindness or deafness • Touch can also be important when interacting with systems • Haptic systems - systems that use touch (haptic feedback) e.g. force feedback joysticks • Smell and taste generally ignored within computer interfaces ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  3. Introduction 2/4 • Human sensing capability in active touch • Differences • Length and velocity 10% • Acceleration 20% • Force 7% • Mass 21% • Viscosity 14% • Resolution • Pressure 0,03 N/cm2 • Transient temperature 0,05 ºC • Skin displacement 20 micro meters • Surface texture 0,1 micro meters ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  4. Introduction 3/4 • Tactile user interface is one type of sensing oriented UIs (Webster defines tactile: “of or relating the sense of touch” ) • Interface which can be controlled by touching and may give tactile output • Input • Handheld / tablet computers • Computer input devices • Information kiosks (touch screens) • Output • Vibrator alarms (cell phones, pagers) • Force Feedback (Entertainment applications e.g. game controllers, robotic surgery) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  5. Introduction 4/4 Sensors • Webster: “A device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurements or operating a control)” • Comprised of two basic parts - a sensing element and a transducer • Contact/contactless sensing • Sensors + signal processing and logic (AI) enable “sensing” in machine domain • Nowadays sensors have integrated microcontrollers • Sensor technologies are rapidly evolving • Drivers: miniaturization, cost, processing power, power consumption factors • In particular the fact that sensors are vital technology enablers for new applications ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  6. Problem Complexity: Human vs. Machine Object recognition Linguistics Extraction of Relevant Features from Sensor Arrays Judging HARD Maximum Potential Benefit MACHINE Thresholding Tallying Arithmetic Logic EASY HARD EASY HUMAN Human vs. Machine Characteristics related to sensing © Thad Roppel from Auburn University ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  7. Motivation • Sensors are vital technology enablers for new applications • When applied in a right way they will probably ease your everyday life (e.g. intelligent environments) • Context-aware computing • “Perception without the context of action is meaningless” • Sensors enable context-awareness (sensor fusion important) • Ubiquitous and pervasive computing • Usability of those devices that can “sense” may be better, because sensors enable a more sophisticated user interaction • Possibly better user experience ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  8. Implementation • Humans and computers “sense” differently • Machines can only emulate real sensing (i.e. human) with the help of different kind of sensors, signal processing, microcontrollers and logic • OBJECTIVE: To intelligently integrate multiple sensors and multiple sensor modalities (i.e. sensor fusion) to serve the needs of Human-Computer Interaction • More natural and intuitive interaction between humans and computer • “Smart interaction” usually requires a network of sensors working in concert • Remember to keep in mind that systems should be build for people not vice versa • Natural interaction as a design paradigm when possible ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  9. Sensor selection 1 of 2 • According to www.sensors-ez.com there are 1022 sensor manufacturers and tens of sensor categories • Excellent source of sensor related information: www.sensorsmag.com • Capacitance sensors (based on charge sensing) • Cheap, simple, no calibration • Enables touch (position) and proximity sensing • Some issues that should be noticed when implementing: • Good quality ground reference • Low impedance connections • Keep connections short and of low inductance • Stop ringing by adding a series resistor • Photoelectric sensors (color sensing, lasers for distance sensing) • Reliable, versatile • Able to sense objects of almost any material, size and shape ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  10. Sensor selection 2 of 2 • Other sensor categories • Acceleration & speed • Acoustic (e.g. ultrasonic sensors) • Displacement & motion • Force, pressure & tension • Light (e.g. IR) • Position & tilt • Presense & proximity • RF • Temperature & humidity • Torque & vibration • Optical imaging based sensors (e.g. cameras) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  11. measure involts, amps, ohms,henrys, farads, etc. measurand transduce perception to electrical signal convert fromsignal to symbol SENSOR ADC e n v i r o n m e n t ACTUATOR compute control action transduce signal toheat, displacement,illumination, etc convert fromsymbol to signal DAC How to ’sense’ using sensors:Sense-Model/Think-Act Loop © Mel Siegel from CMU ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  12. How to implement? • STEPS to systematize the sensing process: • Decomposition of relevant context information acquired by sensors • Model of discrete facts and quantitative measurements • Build a system based on some sensor fusion system architecture (below is one example) © Mel Siegel from CMU ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  13. Usual requirements for an implementation • Small & lightweight -> miniaturization (HDP/ASIC/MEMS) • Reliable • Information security • Biocompatibility • Low power consumption • Shock proof • Low cost ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  14. Application Proactive Furniture Assembly By Stavros Antifakos, Florian Michahelles and Bernt Schiele from ETH Zurich http://www.vision.ethz.ch/projects/ A subproject of the Smart-Its Project that is funded in part by the Commission of the European Union and the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science VIDEO: http://www.vision.ethz.ch/publ/ubicomp02.mov ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  15. Application Introduction • an experimental case study with the IKEA PAX wardrobe • PROBLEM: The presentation of plans by today's instructions is neither sufficient nor satisfying • 3 usage modes were identified: Full-walk-through, Assistance-on-demand and Rescue-from-trap • OBJECTIVE: To develop Proactive Instructions for Furniture Assembly -> better usability of instructions • Chosen approach was to immerse instructions into the objects of interest (i.e. parts of a wardrobe) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  16. IKEA’s assembly instructions ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  17. Different ways to assembly the IKEA PAX wardrobe ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  18. Assembly actions and possible sensor configurations to perceive the action ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  19. Detection of actions • Simple Markov chains were designed for each action • States and state transition probabilities were modeled by hand -> investigations to use Hidden Markov Models in order to train those probabilities automatically are currently ongoing force sensor screwdriver (gyroscope) accelerometer ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  20. Challenges • Precision vs. cost (sensors aren’t free) • Cheapest and most unobtrusive sensor configuration enabling a high recognition precision should be the goal • How to inform the user (assembler) about the next steps to be taken? • Parts giving notice (flashing leds, beeping) • Guidance through a PDA/wearable computer/smart phone (should be avoided) • Closed world assumption narrows down the possible applications • we have to be able to fully model all tasks ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  21. Other applications 1 of 4 • Applications needing • Proximity sensing • Presense detection • Position sensing • New control interfaces etc. • Automotive • Controls and lighting • Safety -> Electronic Stability Program, Acceleration Skid Control, Brake Assistant, Anti-lock Braking system • Alarms and entry access controls • Computers • Peripheral, mouse and joystick controls • Tactile input/output devices (force feedback, in-keyboard ‘mouse’) • Handheld devices (PDAs, phones etc.) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  22. Other applications 2 of 4 • Biomedical/Biometrics • Health care, personal fitness • Wearable, personal health systems like AMON • bio-sensors (pulse, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, skin perspiration, ECG) • Robotic surgery (with PHANTOM™-like products) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  23. Other applications 3 of 4 • Smart environments (e.g. home, office) • Access controls • Room light switches, remote controllers (no push buttons) • Appliance controls (A/V & kitchen) • Hidden controls and alarms (in walls, furniture) • Object sensing (e.g. sense when somebody touches something they shouldn't) • Human presence sensing (e.g. automated lights and doors) • Hand-wave controls -> Make objects sense (e.g. automatic faucet, power-ups) • Wearable computing ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  24. Other applications 4 of 4 • Disability/elderly Aids • electronic assistance devices • reduce need for pressure or pull strength • Safety • Tool auto-shutoff (dead-man switches) • Child detection in unsafe areas • Intrusion detection • Security • 'Smart Objects' - arbitrary objects as 'smart cards' (e.g. RFID) • Toys • Dolls, SONY’s Aibo, LEGO MindStorms ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  25. Strengths / Advantages 1 of 2 • More natural interaction, unobtrusiveness and zero activation force • Flexible form factors • Better user experience and usability • More intuitive usage • Faster and easier to learn • Sensors can provide/acquire information not possible to perceive by human senses • HC interaction may work better than human-human interaction in some aspects (e.g. machines try to serve you proactively) • People can acquire additional information (e.g. health state) ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  26. Strengths / Advantages 2 of 2 • Eases the life of people with disabilities • When deployed well, will make life easier, more comfortable and safer ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  27. Limitations / Weaknesses 1 of 2 • Context-understanding is challenging • Integration of sensors is demanding because sensed information may have overlaps or even conflicts • Sensor fusion techniques (AI algorithms) • Decrease in user’s intentional control • Need for profiles • Increase in SW inferential burden • Fail decisions • Effect on user acceptance • Sensors don’t work in all conditions • Temperature, humidity, EMC and calibration issues ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  28. Limitations / Weaknesses 2 of 2 • Accuracy vs. Cost • MEMS technology enables SoC implementations that are cheaper • Noise and bandwidth • Local processing of sensor data decreases bandwidth requirements • Better noise filtering techniques • Limited power supply • Processing of sensor data needs power ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  29. Selected Industrial Players • Microsoft Corp. – Wireless IntelliMouse Explorer • Quantum Research Group – QTouch™& QMatrix™ • SensAble Technologies Inc. –PHANTOM™ • Sony Electronics Inc. – AIBO product family • The LEGO Group – MindStorms™ product family • VTI Technologies Oy – SCA620 series z-axis accelerometer family ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  30. Selected International Research Groups and Projects 1 of 3 • Carnegie Mellon University HCI Institutewww.hcii.cmu.edu - GM/CMU Project: Driver-Vehicle Interface - Manipulation in a Virtual Haptic Environment Based on Magnetic Levitation - Robotic Assistants for the Elderly • ETH Zurichwww.ethz.ch • Perceptual Computing and Computer Vision Group - Smart-Its[with Lancaster University (UK), University of Karlsruhe (GER), Interactive Institute (SWE) and VTT (FIN)] • Wearable Computing Laboratory - Wearable Microsensor Network - Advanced care and alert portable telemedical MONitor (AMON) • Max Planck Institute for Biological Cyberneticswww.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/bu - HapSys - High-Definition Haptic Systems - CogVis - Cognitive Vision Systems - ECVision ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  31. Selected International Research Groups and Projects 2 of 3 • MIT Media Labwww.media.mit.edu/research • Context-Aware ComputingChrysler 300M IT Edition, Context-Aware Tables, Disruptive Interruptions, Electronic Necklace • Human DesignLearning Humans, MIThril, Project Zaurus, Shortcuts • Nanoscale SensingHigh-Resolution Interferometric Accelerometer • Object-Based MediaSmart Architectural Surfaces • Responsive Environments Design Principles for Efficient Smart Sensor System, Functional Integration for Embedded Intelligence, Modular Platform for High Density Wireless Sensing, Wearable Badge • Robotic Life Sensate Skin, Sociable Robots ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  32. Selected International Research Groups and Projects 3 of 3 • Tangible Media Door Collision Avoidance Sensor, Tangible Bits • Harvard BioRobotics Laboratorywww.biorobotics.harvard.edu - Remote Palpation Instruments for Minimally Invasive Surgery - Vibrotactile Sensing and Display - Force Feedback in Surgery: An Analysis of Blunt Dissection ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  33. Selected Finnish Research Groups and Projects • Tampere Unit for Computer-Human Interaction, University of Tampere • Multimodal Interaction Group www.cs.uta.fi/hci/mmig/projects.htm • Tactile User Interfaces • Multimodal Interface for Persons with Low Vision and/or Hearing Impairment • Recognition and Synthesis of Faces, Gestures, and Actions • Tampere University of Technology • Personal Electronics group www.ele.tut.fi/research/personalelectronics • Smart Home • Wearable Computing • Smart Clothing ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  34. Companies and Research Groups in Oulu • VTT Electronics • Advanced Interactive Systems www.vtt.fi/ele/research/ais/ • Interactive Intelligent Electronics (IIE) www.vtt.fi/ele/projects/iie/ • University of Oulu/Department of Electrical and Information Engineering http://www.ee.oulu.fi • Machine Vision and Media Processing Unit • Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory • Polar Electro Oy • http://www.polar.fi • Idesco Oy • http://www.idesco.fi Proximity/focus sensing Smart Phone interfaces: • J-P Metsävainio Design Oy http://www.jpmdesign.fi • MyOrigo Oy http://www.myorigo.com ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  35. Future Developments • In near term we will see “sensing” slowly become a mainstream feature in man-machine interfaces • Nanotechnology will offer new possibilities because then sensors are so unnoticeable • We won’t know if we have drunk or eaten a sensor • People’s acceptance? ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

  36. Thank you! • Any questions? ISTD 2003, Sensing & Sensors

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