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Diseases Bacterial

Diseases Bacterial. Clostridial Infections C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck) Common in sheep, goats, and cattle Causes fatal hemorrhagic enterocolitis, enterotoxemia C. perfringens type D (Pulpy Kidney Disease) Disease of sheep sudden death C. chauvoei - Blackleg

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Diseases Bacterial

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  1. DiseasesBacterial • Clostridial Infections • C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck) • Common in sheep, goats, and cattle • Causes fatal hemorrhagic enterocolitis, enterotoxemia • C. perfringens type D (Pulpy Kidney Disease) • Disease of sheep • sudden death • C. chauvoei - Blackleg • C. septicum - Malignant Edema • C. novyi - Big Head, Black Disease • C. hemolyticum – bacillary hemoglobinuria, “redwater” • C. tetani - Tetanus

  2. DiseasesBacterial • Clostridial Infections • Source: ubiquitous in environment; GI tract; contaminated feeds • Transmission: ingestion; contamination of wounds • Prevention: vaccinate (multivalent vaccine available) • Treatment: • usually futile • antibiotics • supportive • antitoxin for tetanus

  3. Clostridium Perfringens Causative agent: Clostridium perfringens(normal flora GI sheep) Clinical signs: Type A: diarrhea – neonates. Type B (lamb dysentery: endotoxin): acute bloody diarrhea – young lambs > high mortality. Type C (lamb dysentery: endotoxin): diarrhea in lambs < 3 wks. And in adults – “struck”. Type D: feedlot lambs – high concentrate, eat excessive feed/ milk. Diarrhea (sheep can die w/o diarrhea in goats diarrhea than die), incoordination, excitement, circling, head pressing, convulsions and sudden death

  4. Clostridium Perfringens Diagnosis: Clinical signs or necropsy Treatment: Penicillin and vaccinate with antitoxin in outbreak Prevention: vaccination, parasite control, gradual feed changes

  5. Big Head • Causative agent: Clostridium novyi, C. sordellii, or C. chauvoei (black leg) • Clinical signs (sheep): Head butting and fighting causes bruising or laceration and edematous swelling. • Diagnosis: Clinical signs • Treatment: Penicillin, broad spectrum antibiotics • Prevention: Vaccinate 7/8 way - ewe 1 month before lambing, lamb: 1 month and 2-4 weeks later booster

  6. Black Disease Causative agent: Clostridium novyi Type B (soil) Transmission: ingestion of spores, flukes predispose them to black disease Clinical signs: Often found dead (endotoxins); respiratory distress, anorexia, and fever Diagnosis: Necropsy and culture/ gram stain - liver Hemorrhage of SQ vessels, sub epicardial hemorrhage, kidney/liver - autolysis Treatment: Tetracycline Control: trematodes e.g. albendazole

  7. Black disease. Dark brown swollen liver showing necrotic areas (1–2 cm) in diameter surrounded by a zone of hyperaemia Courtesy of FAO

  8. Tetanus • Cause: infection of open wounds by Clostridium tetani • Symptoms: muscle stiffness causing an unsteady gait, animal looks anxious, convulsions, death results due to the animal being unable to breathe • Treatment: Antibiotics- penicillin and antisera can be given but response is poor; flush wound with hydrogen peroxide and treat with penicillin

  9. Brucellosis Causative agent: Brucella ovis and B. melitensis (rare: abortion) in sheep; Brucella melitensis and B. abortus (ZOONOTIC)in goats. Gram – coccobacillus Malta fever in humans Transmission: sheep - veneral and goats – ingestion of contaminated food, direct contact: urine, feces, placenta, milk Clinical signs: Sheep: Abortion (rare), epididymitis, goats: abortion storms, lameness, mastitis, diarrhea, and depression Diagnosis: Agglutination tests or complement fixation Treatment: None

  10. Caseous Lymphadenitis • Causative agent: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis : gram + coccoid • Transmission: direct contact with superficial wounds, ingestion, inhalation • Clinical signs: Dyspnea, tachypnea, cough, and weight loss • Diagnosis: Culture from TTW, radiographs, necropsy (hepatic abscess) • Treatment: Isolation, hygiene and vaccine?

  11. Caseous Lymphadenitis (cont’d)

  12. Caseous Lymphadenitis (cont’d)

  13. Chlamydophilosis – Enzootic abortion ewes (EAE) Causative agent: Chlamydia psittaci (zoonotic) – gram - Transmission:Direct contact: uterine discharge, fetus, placenta; veneral (rams are carriers) Clinical signs: Abortion (#1 cause in goats): last trimester, weak or stillborn lambs, pneumonia epididymitis, and polyarthritis Diagnosis: ELISA, fluorescent antibody staining, and culture isolation Treatment: Oxytetracycline; females that have aborted should be isolated; fetal tissue or placenta should be burned or buried; and management Prevention: vaccine (prevent abortions)

  14. Joint ill Causative agent: Kids, Staphylococci, streptococci,Corynebacterium spp., Actinomyces, and coliform bacteria Transmission: breaks in skin, umbilical cord, GI, respiratory tract Clinical signs: Warm, painful, swollen joints, lameness, fever, umbilical cord abcessation, and leukocytosis with left shift Diagnosis: Clinical signs Treatment: Penicillin's and joint flushing (saline) Prevention: avoid overcrowding and hygiene at partiurition, dipping umbilical cord

  15. Vibriosis Causative agent: Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus, gram – rod Transmission:ingestion of organisms (intestines of sheep, birds, dogs) Clinical signs: Late-term abortion (#1 – sheep), stillbirths, and weak lambs Diagnosis: Culture Treatment: Antibiotics and vaccination

  16. Metritis Causative agent: Clostridium spp. After dystocia, retained placenta Clinical signs: Vaginal discharge – malodorous brownish-red watery Diagnosis: Clinical signs Treatment: Prostaglandins and oxytocin

  17. DiseasesBacterial • Anthrax • Agent: Bacillus anthracis • Animals: sheep, cattle, goats • Transmission: abrupt climate changes lead to spore release; spores ingested by grazing animals (sheep & cattle more than goats) • Clinical signs: swelling around shoulders, ventral neck, and thorax; bloody secretions; death • Prevention: vaccination with Sterne-strain spore vaccine • Zoonotic

  18. DiseasesBacterial • Corynebacterium renale group • C. renale • Normal inhabitant of bovine genitourinary tract • acute pyelonephritis in cattle results from ascending infection following a compromise of protective mechanisms • Tx: penicillin (3 weeks) • C. pilosum & C. cystitidis • Normal inhabitants of prepuce of sheep and goats • Posthitis (pizzle rot) and vulvovaginitis • high-protein diets increase urinary pH; ammonia irritates prepucial and vulvar skin, increasing vulnerability • Tx: decrease dietary protein

  19. DiseasesBacterial • Foot Rot of Sheep and Goats • Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum (normal inhabitant) and Dichelobacter nodosus (environmental contaminant) • Most common cause of lameness in sheep • Prevention • maintain dry, clean environment • reject clinical cases at delivery • vaccinate • Treatment • foot baths - 10% formalin or 10% zinc sulfate or 10% copper sulfate • penicillin and streptomycin • trim affected tissue

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