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Psychologists. Week 4. Wilhem Wundt. Structuralism Remember him, you should. William James. 1842-1910 New York Wrote Principle of Psychology (published in 1890) Functionalist

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  1. Psychologists Week 4

  2. Wilhem Wundt • Structuralism • Remember him, you should.

  3. William James • 1842-1910 New York • Wrote Principle of Psychology (published in 1890) • Functionalist • Promoted the idea that the mind and consciousness itself would not exist if it didn’t serve a practical and adaptive purpose.

  4. Sir Francis Galton

  5. Sir Francis Galton • 1822-1911 • England • Supposedly related to Charles Darwin (evolution guy) • Traveled around the world and created maps, received an award Royal Geographical Society • After 1859, studied identical twins and worked on first intelligence test • Created phrase “nature and nurture” • Studied inheritable traits and eugenics (a science that deals with the improvement of hereditary qualities)

  6. Max Wertheimer • 1880-1943 • Prague • Gestalt method • Was studying “feebleminded” children and music • Found that a melody cannot be understood merely in terms of its individual notes; but he went beyond this formulation. He demonstrated, among other things, that the recognition of an altered melody does not depend on the number of notes changed but on the notes’ positions in the melody’s structure.

  7. Kurt Koffka • 1886-1941 • Berlin • Did experiments on perception • Wanted to stress an holistic approach • psychological phenomena cannot be interpreted as combinations of elements: parts derive their meaning from the whole, and people perceive complex entities rather than their elements. • Gestalt method • Wrote a book on “Growth of the Mind: An introduction to Child Psychology”

  8. Mary Whiton Calkins • 1863-1930 • Connecticut • First women to become a Psychologist

  9. Mary Whiton Calkins • Took classes at Harvard, but wasn’t allowed to actually attend • Did research on dreams • Invented the paired association technique • Created self-psychology • Explains that the self is an active agent acting consciously and purposefully

  10. Freud

  11. Freud • Wait, its funny, she thinks she is a dog!!!!!!

  12. Sigmund Freud • 1856-1939 • Austrian neurologist • Known as the father of psychoanalysis • http://www.biography.com/people/sigmund-freud-9302400?page=1

  13. Sigmund Freud • In 1900, published The Interpretation of Dreams • Based on his analysis of “neurotic and hysterical” patients • Theorized that forgetfulness or slips of the tongue were not accidental, but it was the “dynamic unconscious” • Looked at personality as being part of the Id, Ego, and Superego • Developed the “talking cure” • Psychoanalytic Psychologist

  14. Ivan Pavlov • 1849-1936 • Russia • Between 1891 and 1900, did a lot of research on the physiology of digestion • Studied dogs and their digestive system, rang a bell and gave meat, eventually the dogs drooled by just hearing the bell • This led to the conditioned reflexes

  15. B.F. Skinner • 1904- 1990 • Pennsylvania • Behaviorist • Operant conditioning • Found that behaviors are dependent on what happens after the response

  16. Abraham Maslow • 1908-1970 • Brooklyn New York • Humanist • (Was classified by psychologists as mentally unstable when he was a kid)

  17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

  18. Jean Piaget • 1896-1980 • France • Cognitivist • Observational studies on children • Children are born with basic mental structure • http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

  19. Carl Rogers • 1902-1987 • Oak Park, IL • Humanist • Creator of client-centered counseling and student-centered education • Took Maslow’s ideas further • Open-ness and self discloser, acceptance, seen with positive regard, and empathy • "As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves."

  20. Roger Sperry • 1913- 1994 • Connecticut • Psychobiologist • 1960’s did extensive experiments on a patient with epilepsy • They cut his corpus collosum • Found that people are of two minds: the right brain and the left brain

  21. Leonard Doob • 1909-2000 • New York • Sociopyschologist • Self described as a liberal social psychologist. • Focused on propaganda during WWII and public opinion • Spent time on conflict resolution in Africa

  22. Time Reports Reading Jean Piaget Sigmund Freud

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