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Other Psychologists

Other Psychologists. Jung, Adler, Pavlov, Skinner and Maslow. Carl Jung. Collective Unconscious - Archetypes 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961. Freud’s idea of the unconscious = dark, unpleasant, seething desires, etc. Jung – “inner space”

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Other Psychologists

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  1. Other Psychologists Jung, Adler, Pavlov, Skinner and Maslow

  2. Carl Jung Collective Unconscious - Archetypes 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961

  3. Freud’s idea of the unconscious = dark, unpleasant, seething desires, etc. Jung – “inner space” Had considerable knowledge in mythology, religion, and philosophy a new collective unconscious of humanity itself

  4. Parts of the Mind Divides psyche into 3 parts: Ego – conscious part of the mind Personal Unconscious - which includes anything which is not presently conscious, but can be. Idea of memories (like Freud), but no instinct Collective Unconscious reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with. And yet we can never be directly conscious of it (ARCHETYPES). Influences are experiences and behaviours

  5. Examples the creative experiences shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature. The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths

  6. close encounter with death It seems that many people, of many different cultural backgrounds, find that they have very similar recollections of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light, of seeing deceased relatives or religious figures waiting for them, etc.

  7. Archetypes The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes An archetype is an unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way “models of people, behaviours or personalities” “universal datum” instinctual patterns of behavior and perception "organizing principle"

  8. Jung believed that there are an endless number of archetypes, but the most common are: The persona The shadow The anima/ animus The great mother The wise old man The hero The self

  9. Example Mother Archetype - All of our ancestors had mothers. We have evolved in an environment that included a mother or mother-substitute. We would never have survived without our connection with a nurturing-one during our times as helpless infants. It stands to reason that we are "built" in a way that reflects that evolutionary environment: We come into this world ready to want mother, to seek her, to recognize her, to deal with her. So the mother archetype is our built-in ability to recognize a certain relationship, that of "mothering." “mother earth”, “motherland”

  10. Myers-Briggs Test The Myers-Briggs personality test was developed off Jung’s ideas of the personality and Extroversion - Introversion (E-I) Sensing - Intuiting (S-N) Thinking - Feeling (T-F) Judging - Perceiving (J-P)* *NOT Jung idea, added after

  11. Personality Types

  12. http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm

  13. Human psyche made up of layers:

  14. Alfred Adler Feb 7th, 1870 – May 28th, 1937

  15. Individual Psychology A shift from sex/libido to environmental factors every person has a sense of inferiority. From childhood, people work toward overcoming this inferiority and asserting their superiority over others. believed that this drive was the motivating force behind human behaviors, emotions and thoughts.

  16. parts of the individual's unconscious self ideal work to convert feelings of inferiority to superiority “compensation”, “inferiority complex” Being social, confidence and self-esteem Compensation = “superiority complex”

  17. Birth order is defined as a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development Birth order can leave an indelible impression on an individual's style of life, which is one's habitual way of dealing with the tasks of friendship, love, and work. firstborns are "dethroned" when a second child comes along, and this may have a lasting influence on them. Younger and only children may be pampered and spoiled, which can also affect their later personalities

  18. Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936

  19. Ivan Pavlov • An innate reflex is an instinctive and unlearned reaction to a stimulus. • yawning is an innate reflex, • Sneezing is another example of an innate reflex, as it is the uncontrolled reaction to the introduction of  foreign particles in one's nose, or a rapid change in temperature.  • A conditioned reflex is learned, either through negative or positive stimuli.  • The fear of snakes is a learned reflex, as young children who would play with snakes and other reptiles with innocent fascination are soon taught to fear by example or stimuli i.e., a mother screams and pulls her child away from a harmless garter snake, reinforcing the gesture with a statement such as "You could have been bitten!" 

  20. Classical Conditioning • behavioral training. • A naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. • Then, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. • Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. • The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response.

  21. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) • is the stimulus that naturally and instinctively elicits the target response, which, in the case of his classic experiment is the meat powder. • Unconditioned Response (UR) • Salivation *as a result of US • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • is the stimulus that comes to elicit the target response, which was the tone in Pavlov’s experiment. • Conditioned Response (CR) • Salivation *as a result of CS

  22. Pavlov’s Dog Experiment • Pavlov’s dog: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6pNzq9v8Pu0

  23. John B. Watson Classical Conditioning January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958

  24. Behaviourism - is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • According to John Watson, psychology should be the science of observable behavior. • “Little Albert Experiment”

  25. Little Albert Experiment • Little Albert: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8331168072486928717

  26. B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990

  27. B.F. Skinner • innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviourism • seeks to understand behaviour as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. *Operant Conditioning

  28. Operant Conditioning • consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behaviour • Different from classical conditioning in that O.C. deals with the modification of "voluntary behaviour" or operant behaviour • Operant behaviour "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of reflexive behaviours

  29. Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning is a learning process that involves an increase or decrease in the likelihood of some behavior as a result of the consequences.   There are four types of learning processes in operant conditioning:  positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.

  30. Positive Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as a result of the presentation of something pleasant after the behavior.      • Negative Reinforcement • Negative reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as the result of removing something unpleasant after the behavior.

  31. Example of PR • After you execute a turn during a skiing lesson, your instructor shouts out, "Great job!" • At work, you exceed this month's sales quota so your boss gives you a bonus.

  32. Example of NR • Before heading out for a day at the beach, you slather on sunscreen in order to avoid getting sunburned. • On Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for class.

  33. Positive Punishment • Positive punishment occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior decreases as the result of the presentation of something unpleasant after the behavior.  • Negative Punishment • Negative punishment occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior decreases as the result of the removal of something pleasant after the behavior.

  34. Example of P.P. • Because you're late to work one morning, you drive over the speed limit through a school zone. As a result, you get pulled over by a police officer and receive a ticket. • Your cell phone rings in the middle of a class lecture, and you are scolded by your teacher for not turning your phone off prior to class.

  35. Example of N.P. • After getting in a fight with his sister over who gets to play with a new toy, the mother simply takes the toy away. • A teenage girl stays out for an hour past her curfew, so her parents ground her for a week.

  36. *It is important to not confuse negative reinforcement and punishment.  They are different.  Negative reinforcement involves an increase in a behavior.   In contrast, punishment involves a decrease in a behavior.

  37. Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970

  38. Abraham Maslow • Studied motivation • His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. • believed that these needs are instinctual and play a major role in motivating behaviour.

  39. Hierarchy of Needs

  40. 1. Physiological – literal requirements for human survival (food, water, air) *if not met, body can’t function! • 2. Safety – personal & financial security, health and well-being • 3. Love/Belonging – friendship, intimacy, family • 4. Esteem – self-esteem, self-respect, “belonging need” • 5. Self-actualization – “what a man can be, he must be” *realizing full potential (being an artist, athlete, complete parent)

  41. As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential.

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