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    3. Definition Organic compounds composed of C, H and O with H and O present in the same ratio as in water. e.g. Glucose C6H12O6. Simple sugars end with suffix ose Naturally occurring compounds, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, whose primary function in the body is to supply energy. Exceptions: -Deoxy sugars such as Rhamnose C6H12O5, digitoxose C6H12O4 -Some non carbohydrates follow the definition: Acetic acid C2H4O2 Formaldehyde HCHO Lactic acid C3H6O3 New definition: Optically active Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that hydrolyze to yield polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.

    5. Physical Characters Condition: Sugars are white, crystalline in shape and with sharp melting points, while polysaccharides are white amorphous solids. Taste: Sugars have a sweet taste (to various degrees) Polysaccharides are tasteless. Solubility: Monosaccharides are soluble in cold water and hot alcohol. Polysaccharides are partially soluble in hot water.

    7. Optical activity: A compound is optically active when, in solution, it is capable of rotating the plane of polarized light either to right (dextrorotatory, + or d) or to the left (levorotatory, - or l). The optical activity of a compound is measured by determination of its specific optical rotation ([?] Dt) using a polarimeter, and applying the following equation: [?]D25 = ? /LC Where: ? = extension of rotation, L = length of tube (light path) in decimeter, C = concentration g /ml, 25 = operating temperature (t) in 0C D = line spectrum of sodium light (589 nm).

    8. Sugar isomers: -Hexoses, like glucose, have 4 asymmetric (chiral) carbons (n = 4), each attached to 4 different groups -Number of isomers can be calculated from the formula: Number of isomers = 2n = 24 = 16

    9. D and L in sugars (configuration): A monosaccharide in which the OH group attached to the carbon atom next to the CH2OH (farthest asymmetric carbon atom from the carbonyl group) is always to the right is designated as a D-sugar and that with the same OH to the left as L -sugar. They are non-superiomposable mirror images (enantiomers) D and L designations are like (R) and (S) designations in that they are not related to the optical rotations of the sugars to which they are applied. Thus, one may encounter sugars that are D (+) or D (-) and others that are L (-) or L (+).

    11. Glucose and Fructose have the same molecular formula C6H12O6. They have different structures with different functional groups (different connectivity). They are described as Structural Isomers.

    13. Terms used to describe isomerism: Glucose and Galactose are different from each other in the stereochemistry of carbon 4. They are described as 4-Epimers. Glucose and Mannose are different from each other in the stereochemistry of carbon 2. They are described as Epimers(also diastereoisomers)

    14.

    15. ?- and ?- anomers of glucose: -When sugars undergo cyclization C-1 became a new chiral carbon and two isomers exist. They are called Anomers. -In the ?-anomer the OH group is directed downside and in the ?-anomer is directed to the upper side. -These two forms have different specific rotation, in solution an equlibrium exsit between the two forms (mutarotation phenomenon).

    17. Linear & cyclic structures

    18. Mutarotation When a sugar is dissolved in water, the specific rotation of the solution gradually changes until it reaches a constant value due to equilibrium between a and b forms (b form is more positive value) e.g. freshly prepared solution of b -glucose has a specific rotation +112o. When this solution is allowed to stand the rotation falls till reach + 52.7o. The equilibrium reached is: 36% a D- glucose [a]D = + 18.7 0 64% b D- glucose [a]D = + 112 0 The mean is + 52.7 o

    19. Proof of Cyclic Structure Of Glucose: 1) Infra-red spectra of glucose solution showed no C=O absorption band (around 1700 cm-1) 2) Glucose reacts with acetic anhydride to give two isomeric penta-acetates which do not react with hydroxyl amine to form oxime indicating absence of aldehydic group

    22. Chemical Reactions Related to Color Tests of Carbohydrates 1) Molischs test: Any carbohydrate + Alcoholic a-naphthol then add conc. H2SO4 on the wall of the test tube Violet ring between the two layers. 2) Effect of conc. acids: Treatment with conc. mineral acid (HCl or H2SO4) leads to dehydration of sugars and formation of the corresponding furfural.

    23. Reaction of furfural with amines resulted in Schiffs bases with different colors used as color tests. 3) Furfural test (Differentiate between Pentoses and Hexoses): Pentose + conc. acid and heat, expose the vapours to Aniline acetate paper Red colour Hexoses give negative result.

    24. 5) Ozazone Test: Sugar (H2O)+ phenyl hydrazine HCl+ NaAc, heat (50 min), cool examine ozazone crystals under the microscope. The ozazone are yellow, crystalline with sharp m.p. Glucose, mannose fructose will give the same crystals (reaction involves C-1 and C-2) due to destruction of asymmetric center at C-2.

    25. 6) Effect of Alkalis Strong alkalis: Polymerization Weak alkalis: Isomerization e.g.

    26. 7) Oxidation: a) Mild Oxidation: These are oxidizing agents like Bromine water (or I2) that convert the CHO group to COOH to produce onic acids. Colour tests based on this reaction: Fehlings reduction test: Sugar solutions + Fehlings A (CuSO4) + Fehlings B (NaOH and Na,K tartarate, Rochell salt), heat on water bath Red Precipitate RCHO + Cu++ RCOOH + Cu2O (ppt cuprous oxide)

    27. Barfoeds test: Sugar solution + Barfoeds reagent (Cu Acetate/Acetic acid), heat for 3 minutes on boiling water bath Red ppt with monosaccharides only. *Acidic medium decreases the oxidation power of Cu++.

    28. b) Strong Oxidation: These are oxidizing agents like HNO3 that convert the CHO and CH2OH group to COOH to produce aric acids.

    29. Glalactaric acid (Mucic acid) test: Oxidation of galactose resulted in the formation of Galactaric acid. It is a meso compound insoluble in water and have zero optical rotation.

    30. c) Enzymatic oxidation: Takes place in plants and resulted in the oxidation of the primary alcohol group only producing uronic acids.

    31. 8) Reduction This resulted in the reduction of the CHO to CH2OH producing Sugar Alcohols. Sodium borohydride or H2/Pt are examples of reducing agents.

    32. Pentoses Examples: ?-D-Ribose: found in all plant and animal cells as the carbohydrate part of nucleic acids e.g. ribonucleic acid (RNA). ?-D-Xylose (or wood sugar): prepared from corncobs, bran, straw (or any woody material) by boiling with acids, fermenting out any glucose present with yeast, and crystallizing the D-xylose from the evaporated solution. ?-L-Arabinose (or pectin sugar): found in gums, pectic substances, accompanying hemicelluloses and forms the sugar part of several glycosides.

    33. Hexoses 1) ?-D-Glucose (dextrose, grape sugar, blood sugar or common sugar) Occurrence: Widely distributed in nature. Present in Grape and blood. Preparation: D-Glucose is commercially prepared from starch by: Autoclaving (at 150 0C) an aqueous starch suspension (15-20%) with dilute acid (0.03 N hydrochloric acid) for 30 minutes (complete hydrolysis).

    34. Uses: -As source of energy (nutrient) either by mouth or IV injection. -IV solutions to restore blood volume. -Shocks following insulin administration. -As osmotic diuretic. -Sweetening agent for Pharmaceutical preparations, ice-cream and candy. Liquid glucose: Preparation: It is prepared by partial acid hydrolysis of starch using dilute hydrochloric acid and heating for 20 minutes at about 30 pounds pressure. Composition: It consists of a mixture of glucose, dextrin, maltose and water. Uses: Used as sweetening agent, as substitute for sucrose and as an excipient in massing pills.

    35. 2- Fructose Preparation: a) Acid hydrolysis of Inulin. b) Hydrolysis of Sucrose.

    36. Test for ketoses: Fructose + HCl + resorcinol, heat red color Fructose + CaCl2 ppt Uses: -Infant food.- -Diabetic food ???? (low glycemic factor) . - Diet control

    37. Deoxy-sugars

    38. Keller Kelliani Test: 2-Deoxy sugars gives positive results whether in the free state or in glycosidic combinations: Dissolve sample in glacial acetic acid containing FeCl3, add H2SO4 containing FeCl3 on the wall of test tube. An intense green color develops at the interface between the two layers, then spreads into the acetic acid layer (upper layer).

    39. Some Monosaccharide derivatives in Pharmacy 1) Gluconic acid and its salts: Preparation: Gluconic acid is prepared from glucose by mild oxidation using either dilute HNO3 or Br2/Na2CO3 or Electrically or by fermentation using Acetobacter aceti. Uses: Ca gluconate is used (by i.v. or orally) for treatment calcium deficiency. Ferrous gluconate, (orally or by i.v.) is used in iron deficiency. These salts are characterized by being more easily absorbed than other Ca or Fe salts.

    40. 2) Glucuronic Acid: Naturally present in Gums and Mucilage's. It can be prepared by Enzymatic oxidation of glucose. Uses: Treatment of certain arthritic condition as it is a component of cartilages, joint capsules and fluids, nerve sheath and tendons. 3)Aurothioglucose: Also known as gold thioglucose, water soluble Treatment of rheumatic arthritis by IM injection. Not uniformly effective.

    41. Auranofin: It is the alkyl Phosphine Gold complex with Acetylated thioglucose. Treatment of rheumatic arthritis orally.

    42. 4) Sorbitol and Mannitol: sugar alcohols Preparation: Sorbitol is prepared by reduction of glucose and mannitol by reduction of mannose. Uses: Sorbitol is used as sweetening agent in dietetic food (not absorbed), chewing gum&tooth pastes. Test of kidney function (iv), not metabolized. Mannitol is used as an osmotic diuretic, laxative, and in tests of kidney function (not metabolized if i.v.), vasodilator (mannitol hexanitrate),

    43. 5) Glucosamine Source: strong acid hydrolysis of chitin (shells of crustaceae) Uses : regeneration of cartilage (as sulphate salt) in joint injuries and arthritis

    44. 6) Ascorbic acid Preparation: -extraction from citrus fruits - synthesis from glucose Uses: -Cure its deficiency (scurvy), cold, capillary fragility -Antioxidant in some pharmaceutical preparations