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DEFINITION:-. “Production management deals with decision making related to production process so that the result in goods and service is produced according to specifications, in the amounts and by the schedule demanded and at minimum cost.”. OPERATION MANAGEMENT.
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DEFINITION:- “Production management deals with decision making related to production process so that the result in goods and service is produced according to specifications, in the amounts and by the schedule demanded and at minimum cost.”
OPERATION MANAGEMENT “A field of study that focuses on the planning scheduling, uses and control manufacturing and services organisation, though the study of design engineering, industrial, engineering MIS quality management production management accounting another functions as they affect the operation.”
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT • Division of labour propounded by Adam Smith 1776 lead to the evolution of production management. • Charles Babbage 1832 emphasised the use of scitific methods for shop floor problems. • F.W.Taylor 1878 has been described as a pioneer in this field • Henry Fayol 1913 attempted mass production and arranged work stations into an assembly line.
JOB PRODUCTION In job production, production is according to specific customer order products are generally non standardised and heterogeneous in nature. Characteristics:- • General purpose machines are required. • Variation in production • Large inventory of materials, parts, tools and items are required. • The setting of machines and equipments will have to be adjusted and readjusted to the manufacturing needs.
LIMITATIONS:- • Irregurality in demand of some products • There maybe insufficient use of labour and equipment. • Scientific assisment of cost is difficult in this method.
BATCH PRODUCTION Batch production is repetative in nature and is defined as the manufacture of a product in batches or lots by series of operation. One operation is carried out on whole batch and then it is passed on to the next operation. Characteristics:- • The work is of repititive nature • There is a functional layout of various manufacturing processes. • Similar machines are arranged at one place. • One operation is carried out on whole batch and then it is passed on the next operation
Merits:- • Fewer machines are required, since machine utilisation is better. • Specialised supervision is possible. • It gives job satisfaction to the operatives • There is a scope of flexibility with respective equipment and personnel. Demerits :- • It became difficult to decide a proper batch lot • Material handling is longer • Production timing is longer, • Work in progress ties up large capital and space • A decision about the sequence of batches is also a problem.
MASS OR FLOW PRODUCTION • Flow production is also referred to as continuous production as the products automatically pass from operation to operation. There is no gap between work between work done at one process and the starting at the next.
Characteristics:- • There will be one type of machine for each process. • The products,tools,materials and methods are standardised. • Production volume is usually high. Suitability:- • There must be continuity in demand for the product. • The process or stage of production should be continuous. • The operations should be well defined.
Merits:- • The product is standardised and any deviation in quality etc. is detected at the spot. • It will help in reducimg direct labour cost. • Since flow of work is simplified there will be less need for control. Demerits:- • The failure of one machine affects the flow of work at all machines. • The production speed is determined by the slowest machines. • It requires general rather specific supervision.
OBJECTIVES:- • Ultimate objectives • Controlling manufacturing costs. • Proper quality of products • Keeping manufacturing schedule. • Intermediate objectives • Maintaining proper machinery and equipment • Proper manpower planning • Adequate manufacturing services • Material • Methods.