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Introductory HUMAN NUTRITION Dr. Gilang Nurdjannah, dr. Dipl.Nutr Department of Nutrition Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran University. Definition. Nutrition Science

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  1. IntroductoryHUMAN NUTRITIONDr. Gilang Nurdjannah, dr. Dipl.NutrDepartment of NutritionMedical Faculty, Padjadjaran University

  2. Definition Nutrition Science The science of food, nutrients and their compounds attaching in role, influence, interaction and equilibrium among food and human body in healthy and illness condition.

  3. Concepts Nutrition science study the alteration of food/nutrients through digestion, absorption, transportation (from intestine to organs inside the body) utilization and excretion. As well Take note of social, economical, cultural, environment, and psychological implications of food availability and eating habit community nutrition

  4. Food science, food processing, food industry, etc Meal planning in healthy individual, growing individual, pregnancy, lactation, elderly, sportsman, and diseases Molecular-biology, physiology and biochemistry Nutrition Science related to:

  5. Terminology • Foodstuff: substances compiled and consist of compound molecules, i.e: • Nutriens —+ chemical substances obtained from food (carbohydrate, protein, iipid, vitamin, mineral & water) • Non nutrients —+ coloring additives, flavour essence, fiber, flavonoids (anti-oxidant), etc; e.g sprout, soybean, rice, oil (beside its nutrient component) etc • Food : Products mixture of foodstuff (derived from plants of animals) either processing or non-processing before it consumed, to yield energy and its function; e.g soup, fried rice, meat balls1 batagor, gado-gado (salad), steak, terriyaki, etc

  6. 1. Physiological function 2. Social function Social relationship, party. Availability dishes make fluency meeting/gathering 3. Psychological function A familiar food lead to emotional satisfaction Three Main Purpose of Food

  7. Physiological Function • Energy supply (CH, lipid, protein as energy nutrients) • 1 gr CH yield 4 kcal • 1 gr lipid yield 9 kcal • 1 gr protein 4 kcal • Building material growth & development (since embryonice intra uterine during life): pregnancy, lactation, all alive (infant — toddlers — youth — elderly)

  8. Maintenance & repair of cells and tissues Replace damaged cells • Regulatory process • Protein — extra & intra cellular fluid • Mineral — Ca (blood coagulation) Fe (02 transport in Hb) • Vitamin — enzymatic reactions • etc

  9. Six Classes of Nutrients 1. Carbohydrate (C, H, 0) • Chemist view sugar, starch, fiber • Role: provide the energy • Food sources sugar, bread, rice, cereal, pasta, cassava, potato, corn 2. Lipid (C, H, 0) • Chemist view fatty acid, phospholipid, sterol • Role : provide the energy,compose hormones & bile acid, structure of cell membran, carry fat soluble vitamins • Food sources : meat, egg, fish, poultry, dairy product (milk)

  10. 3. Protein (C, H, 0, N/S, P, Halogen) • Chemist view : amino acid (contain nitrogen peptides) • Role: growth & maintenance, building material, precursor of enzymes, hormones, antibody, regulators of fluid and electrolyte balances, transporter • Food sources : animal (similar to lipid) & plant food (soybean, nuts, beans, legumes, avocado, durian)

  11. 4. Vitamin - Role coenzyme, antioxidant, promoting vision, supporting reproduction & growth, cell differentiation, hormone, blood clotting - Food sources animal & plant food (fruits & green leafy vegetables) 5. Mineral - Role maintenance acid base balance, bone growth, metalo-enzyme, immune function, pail of hormone, antioxidants, blood clotting - Food sources egg, milk, fruit, vegetables, animal food

  12. 6. Water - Carries nutrients and waste product - Participates in chemical reaction - As solvent - As lubricant - Regulate of body temperature - Maintain blood volume

  13. Process from foodstuff to food consumption FOODSTUFF PROCESSING food SERVED Those processes allow: · changes on nutrient molecules STORAGE RECONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION · changes nutrient value · food contamination

  14. The big molecule Digestion process - ( long chain & complex) transform in fraction to smaller molecules (short chain & simple) absorbed by intestine è CH POLYSACCHARIDE è MONOSACCHARIDE LIPID: TRIGLYCERIDE è MONO&DIGLYCERIDE è FATTY ACID, GLYCEROL P ROTEIN è POLYPEPTIDE, PEPTIDE & AMINO ACID VITAMIN & MINERAL è FREE COMPOUND

  15. After absorption, nutrient from intestinal wall transported o liver through blood vessel for: • Utilization b liver cells or • Distributed t whole cell other organ in the body Inside cell Nutrients molecule will follow reaction of • Catabolism breakdown/degradation), or • Anabolism (synthesis) The series of anabolism & catabolism called metabolism

  16. In order to acquire all nutrients (which are needed by body) to maintain the well being condition, daily food intake should be comp se of 4 classes of Food Sources Health • Carbohydrate (Starchy food from staple food as energy sources) • Protein sources a nimal (plant in equal proportion, protein sources also as fat sources) • Vitamin sources • Mineral sources Perfectly 5. Added with a glass of milk to get complete protein if another source of animal protein insufficient (Four Health Five Perfect slogan, Prof. Poorwo Sudarmo)

  17. Conclusion • Food intage (inc.beverages) should be : • Adequate, especially amount of energy from energy nutrients • (daily, composition of CH 60-70%, Lipid 15-25%, Protein 10-15% of total energy) • Well balanced, contents of 4 health mixed diet sufficiently (mind – dietary fiber sources & plain water intake at least 1 litre daily)

  18. Normal nutrition implies a balance that avoid deficiency of intake or excessive intake (Robinson & Lawler ,1982. modification) Excess nutrition (Energy, fat, cholesterol, sugar, salt, vitamin A and D) NORMAL NUTRITION DEFICIENCY

  19. Primary Inadequancy (lack of food, proverty ignorance, refusal to take food) Secondary Inadequancy (imalabsortion, defective, metabolism, increased destruction & excretion) DFECIENCY TISSUE DEPLETION (advanced test detected biochemically) BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES (blood & urine studies : reduces nutrient levels, abnormal metabolites, enzym changes) CLINICAL SIGNS ANATOMICAL LESIONS (macro & microscopic) FUNCTIONAL CHANGES (specific & non specific)

  20. Note to interest You are what you eat Human created from concentrate-core in the soil

  21. Comparison of foods and molecules That build body structure (g %) Molecule Tofu orange Kangkung Water 84.8 87.2 89.7 Protein 7.8 0.9 3.0 Lipid 4.6 0.2 0.3 carbohydrate 1.6 11.2 5.4 Mineral less less less vitamin less less less

  22. Comparison of foods and molecules That build body structure (g %) Molecule human rice meat Water 60-65 13 66 Protein 15-18 6.8 18.8 Lipid 10-20 0.7 14 Carbohydrate 1.5 18.9 0.8 Mineral 6 less less vitamin less less less

  23. Food intake that less or over arises disorders Nutrition problem in Indonesia (1993) • Under nutrition - Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) - Iron deficiency anemia - Vitamin A deficiency - Iodine deficiency (Goiter) • Over nutrition - Overweight è obesity - Coronary heart disease - Diabetes mellitus

  24. Using Nutrient Recommendation (Recommended Daily Allowances RDA) - Use Asia in Nutrition Department Ministry of Health - The dietary references intake are set for nutrient intake values in amount that can used to plan and evaluate diets for healthy people

  25. Nutritional Assessment Fashioned by • Historical dietary information • Anthropometric data (weight, height, arm circumference, etc) • Physical examination • Laboratory test

  26. Risk factor for chronic diseases • Overweight è obesity • Protein deficiencies • Vitamin & mineral deficiencies • Sedentary life style • Imbalance food composition

  27. Health problem due to nutrition • Cerebro Cardio Vascular Diseases (CCVD: Heart disease, Stroke) • Diabetes melitus • Chronic liver diseases • Cancer

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