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Elements and The Periodic Table

Elements and The Periodic Table

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Elements and The Periodic Table

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  1. Elements and The Periodic Table

  2. The “Super 7” Diatomic Elements “IHave No Bright Or Clever Friends” HOFBrICl

  3. History of the Periodic Table • 330 B.C - 4 elements • 1800 - 31 elements • 1865 - 63 elements • Chemists required a systematic method to organize the elements

  4. John Newlands • 1864 • Arranged all known elements in order of increasing atomic mass • Observed that every 8th element had similar physical and chemical properties (Law of Octaves) • Began to group these elements into “families”

  5. Lothar Meyer • 1865 • Also arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass • Found repeating patterns and developed a table of elements

  6. Dimitri Mendeleev • 1869 • Noticed same patterns as Newlands & Meyer • Because Mendeleev published his table first, he is credited as the Father of the Periodic Table Now, elements are not arranged by atomic mass… Periodic Law: When arranged by atomic number, the properties of the elements repeat at regular intervals.

  7. Amazing!

  8. Within YOUR Lifetime

  9. and the same number of valence electrons

  10. Hydrogen(A class of it’s own) • Sometimes it behaves like an alkali metal, sometimes like a halogen, and sometimes in its own unique way.

  11. Group 1: Alkali Metals • 1 valence electron (electrons in their outermost shell) • Soft, shiny, easily cut with a knife • The most reactive metals • React violently with water (stored in oil or a vacuum) • React with halogens to form salts

  12. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals • 2 valence electrons • Light, reactive metals

  13. Groups 3-12: Transition Metals • 1 or 2 valence electrons • Strong, hard metals • Good conductors of heat and electricity • Wide range of chemical and physical properties

  14. Group 17: Halogens • 7 valence electrons • Extremely reactive nonmetals

  15. Group 18: Noble Gases • Full outer shell • Extremely unreactive (inert)

  16. Lanthanides (Rare Earth Metals) • Elements 57-70

  17. Actinides • Elements 89-102 Transuranic Elements: Synthetic elements (elements 93+)

  18. Practice! • p. 11 #1, 2 • p. 20 #16-20 • p. 21 # 4