The Periodic Table and the Elements • Mrs. Pieper • Physical Science • PHS
The Periodic Table and the Elements • What is the periodic table ? • What information is obtained from the table ? • How can elemental properties be predicted base on the PT ?
Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) In 1869 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known to date. The periodic table is base on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by certain elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England,1887-1915) established that each elements has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized. http://www.chem.msu.su/eng/misc/mendeleev/welcome.html
The Periodic Table • A map of the building block of matter. http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/periodic_table.html
Periodic Table Expanded View • The way the periodic table usually seen is a compress view, placing the Lanthanides and actinides at the bottom of the stable. • The Periodic Table can be arrange by subshells. The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f-block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metals
Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement • Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Nonmetals Metals
Periodic Table: The three broad ClassesMain, Transition, Rare Earth • Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
Reading the Periodic Table: Classification • Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases
Across the Periodic Table • Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7) • These elements have the same number of valence shells. 2nd Period 6th Period
Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell Down the Periodic Table • Family:Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B) • These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell.
Halogen Alkali Noble Gas Alkaline (earth) Chalcogens Transition Metals Infamous Families of the Periodic Table • Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members:
He H C N O F Li P Si S Cl Na Al Mg K Ca Zn Cu Fe Br Ag I Important members - the Elements • Individual members of selected Elements & their characteristics
Periodic Tablee- configuration from the periodic periodic table(To be covered in future chapters) • B • 2p1 H 1s1 He 1s2 F 2p5 Be 2s2 B 2p1 C 2p2 N 2p3 Ne 2p6 O 2p4 Li 2s1 Na 3s1 Mg 3s2 Cl 3p5 Si 3p2 S 3p4 Ar 3p6 Al 3p1 P 3p3 K 4s1 Ca 4s2 Zn 3d10 As 4p3 Be 4p5 V 3d3 Mn 3d5 Fe 3d6 Co 3d7 Sc 3d1 Ti 3d2 Ga 4p1 Ge 4p2 Se 4p4 Cr 4s13d5 Kr 4p6 Ni 3d8 Cu 4s13d10 Sr 5s2 Rb 5s1 Nb 4d3 Ru 4d6 Rh 4d7 Mo 5s14d5 Cd 4d10 Sn 5p2 I 5p5 Xe 5p6 Zr 4d2 Tc 4d5 Y 4d1 In 5p1 Sb 5p3 Te 5p4 Ni 4d8 Ag 5s14d10 Hf 5d2 Cs 6s1 Ta 5d3 Re 5d5 Os 5d6 Ir 5d7 W 6s15d5 La 5d1 Rn 6p6 At 6p5 Ni 5d8 Ba 6s2 Hg 5d10 Tl 6p1 Pb 6p2 Bi 6p3 Po 6p4 Au 6s15d10 Mt 6d7 Bh 6d5 Hs 6d6 Fr 7s1 Rf 6d2 Ra 7s2 Db 6d3 Sg 7s16d5 Ac 6d1
Periodic Table: electron behavior • The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons
2. Trend in Atomic Radius • Atomic Radius: • The size of at atomic specie as determine by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the SW corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Zeff.
3. Trend in Ionization Potential Ionization potential: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atomic specie. Largest toward NE corner of PT since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
4. Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy release when an electron is added to an atom. Most favorable toward NE corner of PT since these atoms have a great affinity for e-.
Summary of Trend • Periodic Table and Periodic Trends • 1. Electron Configuration 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward NE of PT 4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable NE of PT 2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward SW corner of PT
Summary • Periodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter • Type: Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal • Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actanides • Family: Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electrons • Alkali, Alkaline, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases • Period: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell.