770 likes | 1.19k Vues
Job Analysis: Outline. Overview and Uses of Job Analysis General Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data Specific Methods of Job Analysis Job Evaluation. Job Analysis Defined. The systematic study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job and the
E N D
Job Analysis: Outline • Overview and Uses of Job Analysis • General Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data • Specific Methods of Job Analysis • Job Evaluation
Job Analysis Defined The systematic study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job and the qualities needed to perform it. A collection of methods for understanding What a job consists of and what is required in order to perform the job.
Overview and Uses of Job Analysis • Job Description - a detailed description of job tasks, procedures, and responsibilities, the tools and equipment used, and the end product or service. • Job Specification - a statement of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other human attributes (e.g., personality, competencies).
General Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data • Interviewing and Conducting Focus Groups • Observation and Participation • Surveys • Job Diaries.
Job Analysis: Interviewing Individuals and Groups • Subject Matter Experts (SMEs): incumbents, supervisors, subordinates, customers • Open-ended or structured • Individual or Group Interviews • Advantages: detailed information, allows for flexibility in data collection • Disadvantages: incumbents may misrepresent their job, can be time consuming and expensive.
Tips for Job Analysis Interviewing • Be prepared for the interview. Design questions ahead of time and do some homework on the job. • Always explain to the interviewee who you are and why you are there. • Show a sincere interest in the interviewee and his or her job. • Do not try to tell the interviewee how to do the job. • Try to talk to interviewees in their own language. • Encourage interviewees to speak but keep the interview on-track.
Job Analysis: Observation and Participation • Ideally, one should observe a different incumbents on select (representative) occasions. • Observation works best with jobs involving manual operations, repetitive tasks, or other easily seen activities. • Advantages: good information about job context, experiencing what it takes to do the job. • Disadvantages: Hawthorne effect, time consuming and expensive, sometimes impractical.
Job Analysis: Existing Data • Training manuals (or videos), existing job analyses, job descriptions, performance appraisal instruments • Advantages: you don’t have to hunt down information, good preliminary information to plan further data collection efforts • Disadvantages: information may not pertain to the particular job you are analyzing
Job Analysis: Survey Methods • Develop a questionnaire pertaining to relevant KSAO’s and/or tasks and administer to a large number of job incumbents • Ratings may be gathered with regard to task difficulty, relative amount of time spent on task, criticality of error, importance for job success • Advantages: time is saved, relatively inexpensive, assesses many perspectives • Disadvantage: incumbents may misrepresent job, fatigue (from too many items) may limit the validity of responses
Specific Job Analysis Techniques • Critical Incidents Technique (CIT) • Functional Job Analysis (FJA) • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Critical Incidents Technique • A worker-oriented method developed by Flanagan (1954) • Worker oriented method of job analysis • Focuses on examples of particularly successful/unsuccessful on-the-job behaviors • Basic Procedure: • SME’s are gathered to provide as many examples as possible. • Incidents are sorted into categories that make sense
Critical Incidents Technique • Advantages: well suited for performance appraisal • Disadvantages: focuses on extreme behaviors rather than typical behaviors, not applied very systematically
Functional Job Analysis • A job-oriented method developed by Department of Labor in the 1930’s and later refined by Sydney Fine • Uses a variety of general methods of job analysis (e.g., interview, survey, observation) • The Dictionary of Occupational Titles was created with FJA • All jobs considered in 3 main dimensions: • Data: information, knowledge, concepts • People: amount and type of contact with people • Things: inanimate objects used on the job (MTEWA)
Functional Job Analysis • Basic Procedure: • Break job down into tasks • Rate each task in terms of Data, People, and Things • Sum Scores to get a total composite on each dimension • Advantages: comprehensive and effective, suitable for a wide variety of purposes • Disadvantage: can be time-consuming and expensive
Position Analysis Questionnaire • A worker-oriented method developed by McCormick and associates at Purdue U. • Standardized questioning containing 194 “job elements” referring to a specific aspect of work behavior (e.g., use of measuring devices) • SME’s rate the relevance of the job elements that are organized into six categories (see textbook, p. 68)
Position Analysis Questionnaire • Advantages: can be used for any job, good method for comparing jobs or classifying jobs, relatively inexpensive and easy to use • Disadvantages: people may misrepresent their job, can take a lot of time to administer, must be interpreted at Purdue U., requires a high reading level
Limiting Error/Bias in Job Analysis • Use multiple sources of information about the job • Use more than one trained and experienced analyst, if possible • Give analysts enough time to do the job right • Check and recheck information and results
Job Evaluation • An assessment of the relative value of jobs to determine appropriate compensation. • A process that allows one to determine the financial worth of a job: • Setting wages • Determining comparable worth (whether jobs that require equivalent KSAOs are compensated equally)
A Method of Job Evaluation • The Point System • Determine compensable factors - important and common work factors across jobs used to determine appropriate compensation (e.g., physical demands, responsibility, specialized knowledge, etc.) • Assign each job a score on each compensable factor. • Total scores on compensable factors and convert into dollar amounts.
A Method of Job Evaluation • The Point System • Market value of labor also may come into play (supply and demand). • A wage trend line can be created by plotting point totals against current wages. • When wage discrepancy is determined, the underpaid is usually given a raise. • Exceptioning is the practice of ignoring pay discrepancies between particular jobs possessing equivalent duties and responsibilities.
Employee Recruitment and Selection • Recruitment • Overview • General Considerations • Realistic Job Preview • Selection • Overview • Deciding Whether a Selection Test is Useful • Specific Selection Tests
Employee Recruitment • The process by which organizations attract potential workers to apply to jobs. • Attracting the most suitable and highly qualified applicants as quickly and cheaply as possible so that the applicant pool is large enough to be selective. • The success of recruitment efforts greatly determine whether selection processes will be effective.
Employee Recruitment • 4 Main Factors to Consider • Cost • Time-table • Necessity of attracting specific groups • Likelihood that the person hired will perform well and not turnover
Employee Recruitment • Recruitment Sources • ads • college recruitment/job fairs • unsolicited write-ins • walk-ins • company transfer and promotion • private employment agencies • executive search firms • employee referrals/word of mouth
Employee Recruitment • Affirmative Action Plan - a formal, written plan for reducing the under-representation of minority groups in an organization. • Under-representation - a marked discrepancy between the number of people in the labor force who are available for a job and the number who are actually employed. • Chilling Effect - an organization with a reputation for being uninterested toward certain groups of potential employees.
Recruiting Yield Pyramid Hires Offers Interviews Invites Leads Employee Recruitment
Employee Recruitment Recruitment Planning Graph Leads Invites Interviews # of People Offers Hires # of Days
Employee Recruitment • In an effort to recruit applicants, organizations sometimes misrepresent jobs to make them seem more appealing than they are • Advantage - improves the selection ratio (# of positions to be filled/# of applicants) • Disadvantages • Turnover • Time and money expended to screen applicants. • Public relations problems
Employee Recruitment • Parkinson (1957) - Feature the negative aspects of the job and then only those people who are really suited to the job will apply • Advantages • Demands of the screening process are reduced • People who do apply will be well suited • Disadvantages • Few or no people may apply and therefore one cannot be selective • People discouraged may have been well suited for the job
Employee Recruitment • The Realistic Job Preview (RJP) • Wanous (1980) • an honest presentation of the prospective job and the organization given to applicants • may take many different forms: a brochure, ad, oral presentation, site visit, videotape of the representative elements of the job
Employee Recruitment Origins of RJP: Wanous interviewed new recruits and examined trends in their job satisfaction Job Satisfaction Job Entrance Decision to Take Job Reality Shock Phase Time
Employee Recruitment • Wanous suggested that RJPs work because they are a “vaccination of expectations”, that lead to: • self-selection • decreased anticipated job satisfaction • increased commitment to the organization • increased tenure and decreased turnover • performance and job satisfaction increased as a result of role clarity
Employee Recruitment • Premack and Wanous (1985) conducted a meta-analysis of 21 studies of RJP (N = 6000) • Six Main Results • RJPs reduce turnover • RJPs increase performance • RJPs lower expectations • RJPs increase self-selection • RJPs increase organizational commitment • RJPs increase job satisfaction
Employee Recruitment • Premack and Wanous (1985) meta-analysis • Boundary Conditions of RJP Effectiveness • RJP most likely to work when candidates have unrealistic expectations • Applicants must have a choice of accepting the job or not • Job must have some negative aspects that are likely to impact on the worker. The more negative aspects of the job, the greater the effectiveness of RJP
Employee Selection • The process of choosing applicants for employment • The purpose of employee selection processes are to increase productivity and save money by hiring the best people for the job • How do you go about selecting the best applicants? • Background Information • Selection Tests (e.g., paper and pencil tests, interviews, work samples)
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Reliability - the consistency of a measurement instrument or its stability over time • Test-retest reliability - stability over time, correlation between test scores of the same individuals at two different points in time • Internal consistency - stability across items of a selection test, Cronbach’s Alpha, average of all possible split-half correlations
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Reliability • Parallel forms - stability across different versions of a selection test, correlation between test scores of the same individuals using two different versions of the selection test • Validity - concept referring to the accuracy of a measurement instrument • The extent to which a selection test is measuring what it is supposed to measure
The Difference Between Reliability and Validity ACME Intelligence Test 1. I am smart. T F 2. I am really smart. T F 3. I was smart yesterday. T F 4. I will be smart tomorrow. T F 5. I am not stupid. T F Deciding whether a selection test is useful
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Validity - Reliability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for reliability. Reliability sets the upper bound of validity • Content Validity - The extent to which the content of the test is representative of what you are trying to measure (i.e., job performance) • Job analysis is essential for establishing content validity • Typically, determined via expert judgement
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Face Validity - the extent to which a test appears to measure what it should be measuring (from the point of view of a non-expert taking the test) • Applicants may feel they have been treated unfairly when a test lacks face validity which may result in negative public relations and litigation • Although face validity is desirable, it is not sufficient evidence of the usefulness of a test, by itself
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Criterion-related validity - the relationship between test scores and some job-related criterion (e.g., job performance, turnover, etc.) • The correlation between a selection test and a criterion is often referred to as the validity coefficient • Predictive Validity - follow-up method • Concurrent Validity - present-employee method
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Construct Validity - A judgement based on all available data as to whether the test measures what it is supposed to measure • Utility - How much money the test is worth to the organization. Consists of: • Costs associated with administering and using the test • Benefits derived by basing decisions on the test
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Utility is affected by: • Criterion-related validity • Selection ratio • Testing costs • Relative worth or good vs. poor performers (SDY) • Average tenure of workers in the company • Utility Analysis - a mathematical procedure of combining these considerations of utility
Deciding whether a selection test is useful • Adverse Impact and Test Bias - whether a test is fair for some group(s)of applicants (majority members) but unfair for members of some other group(s) of applicants (minority members) • Adverse impact occurs when the selection ratio for a minority group is considerably lower than the selection ratio of the majority group • Valid tests can result in adverse impact
Specific Selection Tests • Biodata • Cognitive Ability Tests • Personality Tests • Integrity Tests • Physical Agility Tests • Job Knowledge Tests • Work Simulations • Job Interviews • Assessment Centers
Biodata • Background information and personal characteristics that can be used in employee selection. • AKA: Biographic Information Blank, Weighted Information Blank • An application blank containing questions that research has shown to measure the difference between successful and unsuccessful performers on a job.
Biodata • Advantages: • Predictive of supervisor ratings, absenteeism, employee theft, sales, tenure, and organizational profit • Easy to use, quickly administered, inexpensive • Disadvantages • Dustbowl empiricism/statistical opportunism • Validity may not be stable over time • Bias, invasiveness, faking
Cognitive Ability Tests • General Mental Ability (g) - the singular, primary basis of intelligence • Tests typically include questions assessing: • Verbal ability • Quantitative ability • Logic/Reasoning • Many researchers believe it is the single most diagnostic predictor of future job performance.
Cognitive Ability Tests • Advantages • Criterion-related validity typically ranges between .4 and .6 • Some tests are very easy to administer • Not fakable • Disadvantages • Adverse impact
Personality Tests • Personality: A pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persist over time and situations and distinguishes one person from another. • Tests of Psychopathology (MMPI-2, Thematic Aptitude Test) • Tests of Normal Personality (NEO, Hogan Personality Inventory, 16 PF) • The Big Five: Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness