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Cell Types and Cell Structure

Cell Types and Cell Structure

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Cell Types and Cell Structure

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  1. Cell Types and Cell Structure

  2. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic • no nucleus • no membrane enclosed organelles • single chromosome • no streaming in the cytoplasm • cell division without mitosis • simple flagella • smaller ribosomes • simple cytoskeleton • no cellulose in cell walls • no histone proteins • nucleus • membrane enclosed organelle • chromosomes in pairs • streaming in the cytoplasm • cell division by mitosis • complex flagella • larger ribosomes • complex cytoskeleton • cellulose in cell walls • DNA bound to histone proteins

  3. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Examples: Bacteria Examples: Plant cells Animal cells Fungi Protists

  4. Plasma membrane 1. Surrounds Cells 2. Protected by cellulose and protein cell wall in plants Plasma Membrane

  5. Cytoplasm 1. Fluid (Cytosol) and organelles that make up the inside of the cell Cytoplasm

  6. Nucleus 1. Membranous nuclear envelope 2. Chromosomes of DNA and protein (Histones) Nucleus

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 1. Rough ER - Transport of proteins (roughness is the attached ribosomes) 2. Smooth ER – Processing and transport of lipids Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

  8. Ribosomes 1. Attached to Rough ER 2. Site of protein synthesis Ribosomes

  9. Golgi Apparatus (Golgi body, Golgi complex) 1. Assembly and editing of proteins Golgi Apparatus

  10. Lysosomes 1. Contain enzymes that break down and help recycle large proteins in animal cells Lysosomes

  11. Mitochondria 1. Powerhouse ‑ site of ATP synthesis Mitochondria

  12. Flagella and Cilia 1. Cell surface projections for movement Flagella and Cilia

  13. Microtubules and Microfilaments 1. Structural components of the cell (cytoskeleton) in eukaryotes Microtubules and Microfilaments

  14. Vacuoles 1. Large central vacuoles in plant cells contain enzymes and pigments in plant cells Vacuoles

  15. Chloroplasts 1. Photosynthetic organelles in plant cells, containing the chlorophyll pigments Chloroplasts

  16. Comparison:Plant cellsAnimal cells • Large, central vacuole • Chloroplasts • Rigid cell wall outside • of cell membrane • No large, central vacuole • No chloroplasts • No rigid cell wall