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Six Sigma Quality Engineering

Six Sigma Quality Engineering

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Six Sigma Quality Engineering

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  1. Six Sigma Quality Engineering Week 10 Lean Enterprise Continuous Improvements (Kaizen)

  2. What is a Kaizen Blitz? A Kaizen Blitz is a cross functional multi-level team of 5 to 10 members working intensely for 10 to 14 hours a day, to rapidly develop, test and refine solutions to problems and leave a new solution in place in just a few days. They don’t plan, they don’t propose, they do. A Kaizen Blitz, used in conjunction with the Toyota Production System (TPS) and current Lean Manufacturing principles, can serve as a catalyst for the initial implementation of a plant wide Lean Manufacturing initiative. This focus on immediate change is what sets Kaizen activity apart from other improvement tools.

  3. Cycle of an Event Schedule the Event Recognize the Needfor Change Select System / Process to Optimize 3 2 4 Our Way of Life 1 5 Develop the Objectives Formalize the Change 12 Process Owner: Review& Explains Objectives 6 11 Process Owner: Accepts Change 7 • Learning the Tools • 5S, Process Flow • TAKT / Cycle Time 10 8 9 Make the Change • Capture the Details • Data Gathering • Detail Analysis Set Goals, Make a Plan

  4. Where do we start first? Define the problem Anywhere Work is being done… Waste is being generated THE CUSTOMER DOES NOT PAY FOR WASTE Module 0013

  5. How Material SpendsTime In The Factory Large opportunity Better 90's 80's Value Added 4% Value Non- Non- Added Value Value 16% Added Added 84% 96% We can make this better but it is not our focus

  6. How Paper Spends TimeIn An Office Process We will also focus on front end throughput opportunities VA 18% NVA 82% ref: Otis - NAD, 1991 Module 0013

  7. Total Cost This is not a labor reduction program 6 % Direct Labor As a Percent of Total Cost. Module 0013

  8. The New Equation Supplier Cost Increases Profit Old View Sales Price Sales Price Mfg. Cost Cost + Profit = Sales Price Value Supplier Cost Increases Profit New Reality Sales Price Either way Mfg. Costs have to decrease to maintain or increase profits Mfg. Cost Profit = Sales Price - Cost

  9. Process Layout And FlowMass Production System Lay it out Raw Material Receiving Inspection Store WIP WIP WIP Form Clean Trim WIP OP1 WIP WIP OP2 WIP WIP OP3 WIP Punch Clean Heat Treat WIP OP4 WIP WIP OP5 WIP WIP OP6 WIP Inspection Store WIP Module 0013

  10. Separating The Value AddedFrom Non-Value Added Receive + Inspect + Move + Store +Count + Move Anneal + Move + Wheelabrate + Inspect +Move Mill to Face + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move +Store + Move Turn Stem I.D. & O.D. +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move Grind Top Face +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move Drill C’Bore, Through Hole & Venthole + Inspect +Move +Deburr Venthole +Move Mill Clearance +Inspect +Move +Wash +Degrease +Move Carburize +Move Anneal + Move +Degrease + Inspect +Move +Wash Hone Stem I.D. +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move +Store +Move Mill Nut Surface +Inspect +Move +Wash +Move Measure it Module 0013

  11. Separating The Value AddedFrom Non-Value Added 1. Why? • REDRILL & TAP + Move + Wash + Degrease + Move • INSTALL SCREWS + Move • HARDEN + Move + Degrease + Move • REMOVE SCREWS + Move • TEMPER + Move + Wheelabrate + Inspect + Move • HONE STEM I.D. + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move • FINISH GRIND TOP FACE + Inspect + Move + Wash + Move • Inspect "A" Dimensions + Move • Inspect "B" Dimensions + Move + Select Fatigue Test Samples + Store + Move • Audit + Move (If quality Audit is Acceptable) (Rejected - Rework) + Store • Receive in Finish Stock Room + Count + Store + Issue + Move • BAG + Inspect (If Acceptable) + Move • SHIPPING 2. Why? 3. Why? 4.Why? 5.Why? SUMMARY:17 VALUE ADDED ELEMENTS / 93 NON-VALUE ADDED ELEMENTS LEAD TIME: 345 HOURS/23 HOURS DAY = 15 DAYS Module 0013

  12. Crosshead CellValue Added Summary Small change Module 0013 The Lean focus

  13. Process Flow Summary Sitting in a rack or in queue Is lead-time important?…which should you attack first? Typical U.S. Average Process Time was 4% Adding value

  14. Process Layout Flow AndMass Production Process This could also be office structure process islands • HEAT • TREAT CLEANING RAW MATERIALS TO FINISHED STORES TRIMMING INSPECTION RAW MATERIAL STORES CUTTING PUNCHING FORMING Module 0013

  15. The General Concept Anywhere work is being done, waste is being generated. 1. Specify VALUEFrom your customer’s perspective, not yours. What does the customer want? What are they willing to pay for? 2. Identify the VALUE STREAM and Eliminate WasteThe entire value delivery process from inquiry to receipt of cash. 3. Make value FLOW - Ideally One-Piece-At-A-Time 4. Let the customer PULL value through the process.Not suppliers or machine technology 5. Pursue PERFECTION Critical Ingredients Of Lean Are: Module 0013

  16. Lean Thinking-Defined • Human activity that absorbs resources but creates no value. • Mistakes that require rework. • Production of items no one wants so inventory piles up. • Processing steps which aren’t actually needed. • Movement of employees/goods without any purpose. • Downstream people/processes waiting for upstream activity. • Goods/services which do not meet the needs of the customer Total Elimination of…. ….Waste Module 0013

  17. Eliminate Waste Out Of Total Activities Module 0013

  18. Lean Manufacturing The Fundamental Concept Make What is needed When it is needed In the Amount Needed Module 0013

  19. New Competitive Realities As Time is Compressed, Quality, Productivity and Cost are Improved You need more than cost reductions to steal customers away from your competition. You cannot cost reduce yourself to prosperity, you need to grow. Module 0013

  20. Lean Manufacturing Lean • Is a Methodology for the Systematic Elimination of Waste Non-Lean Rework • 7 Types of Waste • Overproduction • Waiting • Transportation • Unnecessary Processing • Inventory • Unnecessary Motion • Correction • + A Person Stores Applies to all business processes! Module 0013

  21. Waste of Overproduction THE PRIMARY WASTE To produce more parts than necessary or at a rate faster than required. (Both contribute to excess inventory and waste time that could be spent making required product.) Module 0013

  22. Waste Of Correction To correct or repair a defect in materials or parts adds unnecessary costs. (rework) Module 0013

  23. Waste Of Processing To process unnecessary work which does not advance or improve the quality of the product. (performing multiple transactions to receive material, transacting parts into inventory... then take them out to load machines.) Module 0013

  24. Waste Of Inventory Inventory is a drain on an organization’s overhead. The greater the inventory, the higher the overhead costs become. (With excess inventory, we cover-up unacceptable change over times, excessive downtime, and operator inefficiency) Module 0013

  25. Waste Of Motion Any movement of people or machinery which does not contribute added value to the product. (excessive walking distance between operations) Module 0013

  26. Waste Of Waiting Idle time between operations or events. (operator waiting for machine to finish cycling or machine waiting for operator to load new parts) Module 0013

  27. Why Focus On HumanInstead Of Equipment? • Equipment is a sunk cost; it depreciates over time, wears out or becomes obsolete. • The Operator is an ongoing resource that should appreciate over time. They gain skill and knowledge. Your competition can easily match you machine for machine Your competitive edge is in how you deploy your value adding people Module 0013

  28. How does lean specifically attack the problem? Module 0013

  29. Tools Of The Lean Enterprise *5’s *Visual Controls *Process Mapping *Supplier Certification *Multi-skills training *Kanban *Cell layout(U shape) *Autonomation *POU inventory *Takt time *Right sizing *Curtain *5 Why’s *Time observations *Right Sizing *1 part pull *Single minute exchange of die (SMED) *Line stop *% loading *Mistake proofing *Normal/Abnormal *Quality at source *Standard Work *Signal lights *Value adding analysis *TPM Module 0013

  30. 5-S WorkplaceOrganization Steps 1.SORT Clearly distinguish what is needed and what is not Remove what does not support the least waste way 2.STRAIGHTEN Organize the way things are kept, making it easier for anyone to find & return items to their proper location in the sequence used 3. SHINE Keep things clean-floor, machines, desks, files equipment-neat & tidy 4. STANDARDIZE Maintain & improve the first 3S’s 5. SUSTAIN Achieve the discipline / habit of properly maintaining the correct procedures

  31. Lean Manufacturing • Involves the precise definition of Normal in such a way that the Abnormal is exposed in Real-Time and can be eliminated. • The result is a Continuous Improvement Environment Module 0013

  32. Waste Identify The Waste Based on Observation: Normal vs. Abnormal Value-AddedNon Value-Added Eliminate KaizenEliminate Module 0013

  33. Don’t Forget • It is the not the person doing the work that is ugly. It is the Waste that is ugly. • We are not stripping people of their dignity. • We are attacking Waste Waste Monster Module 0013

  34. One Piece Flow Model TRIMMING Fixture CLEANING Fixture PUNCHING Fixture FORMING Fixture • HEAT TREAT • Fixture CUTTING Fixture FINISHED STORES Fixture RAW MATERIALS Fixture Module 0013 PART

  35. Physical Layout • Supports one piece flow • Supports Standard Work In Process • Supports Standard Work • Supports visual control Each kaizen reduces the cell size Kaizen after Kaizen after Kaizen Module 0013

  36. Visual Controls • The use of signals, lights, measurements, diagrams, charts & signs to : • Clearly define the normal or desired condition • Expose theabnormal undesired condition - real time

  37. Cards Material Replenishment System • How they work • This same shelf with additional Visual Controls becomes more meaningful • Standard Work may be : • Green - normal • Yellow - reorder point passed • Red - replenishment past due, contact supplier immediately • Blue - abnormal, investigate - consumption changed, supplier overshipped Module 0013

  38. Need : valve - 636/11 Quantity : 2 Required : 10am Where : 700 Cell Material Replenishment System 1. Ensures • the right thing • ( Instrument, supply, etc … ) • in the right quantity • at the right time • to the right location • in the right orientation 2. Simple signs used to trigger material replenishment according to usage at Takt time cadence Module 0013

  39. Standard Work • There can be no improvement … no Kaizen … without the basis of Standard Work • Standard Work details the motion of the operator & the process sequence in producing a part • It is the statement of the least waste way of production through the best combination of people & equipment, the least amount of Work In Process possible, showing where to check for quality & where there are safety issues • It provides a routine for consistency of an operation & a basis for improvement Not machine It tells us how to make one to our TAKT time Module 0013

  40. Single Minute Exchange Of Die S.M.E.D. • A process for dramatically, logically & methodically reducing set up or changeover time • To enable the significant reduction of lot sizes & the approach towards single piece flow • Supports mixed model, daily production The goal is to change a set up in one TAKT time Large machine centers set ups must be done during machine cycle time Level loaded demand (1A,1B,1A,1B) Module 0013 In other words… PROFESSIONALISM

  41. T.A. Time Available S.U. Sold Units TAKT Time = = Takt Time • From the German word for “meter” • The time which reflects the rate at which customers buy one unit We can work with this It is what it is Not much you can do about this Module 0013

  42. 5 Why’s 1. Why did the system fail? A: The motor burned out 2. Why did the motor burn out? A: The shaft seized 3. Why did the shaft seize? A: There was no lubrication 4. Why was there no lubrication? A: The line filter was clogged 5. Why was the line filter clogged? A: It was the wrong sized mesh! Root Cause Module 0013

  43. TPM • The lack of TPM results in Breakdowns • Breakdowns are a result of undetected or ignored equipment deterioration • 75% of all equipment deterioration can be detected by a trained operator • The remaining 25% can be detected by trained maintenance technicians performing preventative & predictive maintenance … … therefore all breakdowns can be prevented Do a careful analysis of when the machine does not need to be run( lunch periods,breaks, second shift, weekends, holidays etc.) 75% of all machine downtime is due to dirt and lack of proper lubrication. Module 0013

  44. Process Mapping • A visual representation of a process that can include: • process steps • sequence • duration • distance • A process map can be constructed at a “high level - broad process steps …or at a lower level - with process detail You have to do more than just ask someone how long an operation takes. Generally, they will not include walking and waiting, and will give highly inaccurate set up times.

  45. One Part Pull • The opposite of batch production • Processing product one at a time at the unit level at which the product is sold • Lean Manufacturing delivers its greatest improvements, maximizes its problem exposure, and enables constant top quality when one part pull is relentlessly applied Exposes the problems (Makes it ugly). It is hard to hide problems in the system with no buffer stock Repairs are made on 1 part rather than the entire batch Module 0013

  46. Mistake Proofing • Mistake proofing goal - Zero defects • Mistake Proofing is a method that uses simple, low cost devices to check each part at each operation to prevent mistakes from occurring 1. Built into product design 2. Built into process 3. Automatic check system Work to achieve defect prevention not defect detection Module 0013

  47. Right Sizing • Only the right amount of resources … • equipment • space • work surface • material … to support one piece flow Must first improve the operation, then improve the equipment. You do not want to size the equipment to accommodate a wasteful cell Module 0013

  48. Right Sizing • Buy only the minimum amount of equipment, preferably built in house • Do not always think that expensive, high performance machines are always the best, but consider a consistency of the whole production • First “improve operation” and afterwards carry out “improvement of equipment”, otherwise it might cause the mechanization of waste. Module 0013

  49. Multi-Skilled Workers • The leanest process may require workers to provide effort in a variety of tasks • Rigid job classifications & definitions are in direct conflict with teamwork & reduce flexibility to meet customer needs • Multi skilled workers are capable of maximizing teamwork & performance Especially important to 1 part flow in an assembly operation Module 0013

  50. Curtain Operation • A Curtain Operation : • Is often out of the cell/build flow area • Does not lend itself to one piece flow • Could be a “batch type” operation such as heat treat or cure • Is often a monument • A Curtain Operation done effectively enables one piece flow Module 0013