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Wildlife Policy

Wildlife Policy

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Wildlife Policy

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Wildlife Policy Wildlife Commodification (Fishing, Hunting, Nature) Ivory billed woodpeckers, Flying Asian carp, & Biotechnology

  2. Ambivalence • Who is in charge? • What are we talking about? • Where are they(?) located? • How do we treat them? • Wildlife owned by the state in its sovereign capacity "in trust for the public” • Personal property - when killed, also pets, vermin • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish & Wildlife Service) • Importation of Pets and other animals into the United States (Center for Disease Control)

  3. Spectrum of Ambivalence • Individuals ----- Species (Populations) -------- Assemblages • Domesticated – Feral – Commensals ---------------------- Wild • Urban ---------- Agricultural --------- Forestry ----- Wilderness • Hunting/Fishing ------------------------------- Livestock • Zoos • Research animals • New Life Forms • Game - non-game - fur-bearing - threatened or endangered - exotic or invasive

  4. Legal/Ethical Rights of Non-Humans • Animal Rights (Wikipedia) • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals • Animal Rights (Gary L. Francione, Rutgers University) • Should trees have standing? Christopher Stone • A Wilderness Bill of Rights William O Douglas • John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation (Univ. of Okla. Press ed. 1986) • George Bird Grinnell & Charles Sheldon eds Hunting and Conservation (New York Arno Press 1970) • The Commodification of Wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (Shannon Bowen) • Commodification of Nature (Wildwilderness.org) • Commodifying what nature? Noel Castree

  5. Ownership of Nature • Thomas A. Lund, British Wildlife Law Before the American Revolution: Lessons From The Past, 74 MICH. L. REV. 49, 53-55 (1975) • Thomas A. Lund, Early American Wildlife Law, 51 N.Y.U. L. REV. 703, 719 (1976) • James A. Tober Who Owns the Wildlife? (1981) • Who owns the animals? (Montanans for Multiple Use) • Who owns wildlife? (Paul Matthews) • Who owns the seeds? (Wildlifegardeners.org)

  6. A Production Spectrum

  7. Land & Water Base for Wildlife • Public • Federal • State • Local Government – county, municipality • Private • Individual • Corporations • Public • Private • Nonprofit

  8. USDA Forest Service

  9. Public Land • National Parks • State Public Lands (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources) • Regional Parks (Metropolitan Council) • County Lands (Dakota County) • Private Land - preserve areas and regulate activities • Agriculture • Forests • Special – prairie remnants, wetlands, golf courses, vacant land, urban areas

  10. US Department of the Interior • Bureau of Land Management - 261 million surface acres • National Park System - 83.6 million acres (4.3 million acres privately owned) • Maps of Parks & Monuments (University of Texas) • Public Use Statistics • Fish & Wildlife Service – 93 million acres

  11. USDA • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - species • Natural Resources Conservation Service - habitats • United States  Minnesota • Cultivated 20.6% 42.0%                     • Grass    26.9%                9.2% • Forests    33.0%               26.7% • Other     19.9%               21.1%

  12. Some Sort of an Organizing Theme • Commerce clause • Treaty making power • Endangered Species Act • Property Clause • Hunting & Fishing • Patenting lifeforms

  13. Federal Policy • Title 16 United States Code Conservation • Federal Wildlife Law of the 20th Century (Center for Wildlife Law) • Animal Welfare Act (National Agricultural Library) • Animal and Veterinary (Federal Drug Administration • Title 50 Code of Federal Regulations Wildlife and Fisheries • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service • National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA) • Marine Mammal Commission • Center for Wildlife Law (University of New Mexico) • Fish, Game & Wildlife Law (Megalaw.com)

  14. Other Federal Agencies • Agricultural Research Service • Bureau of Land Management • USDA Natural Resources and Environment • US Botanic Garden • US Army Corps of Engineers • Council on Environmental Quality • Environmental Protection Agency • Forest Service • Marine Mammal Commission • National Park Service • National Science Foundation

  15. Land Use in the United States

  16. WetlandsSolid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v US Army Corps of Engineers

  17. Migration Between Jurisdictions • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish & Wildlife Service) • Animal Importation (Center for Disease Control) • Invasive species (National Agricultural Library) • Invasive species (Fish and Wildlife Service) • Invasive Species (Union of Concerned Scientists) • Invasive.org • Invasive Species in the Great Lakes • Court will not hear case to close locks (The Badger Herald

  18. Endangered Species Program (US Fish & Wildlife Service) • Statutory Law (16 USC 1531 et seq) • Administrative Law (50 CFR 17) • Case Law (Hill v Tennessee Valley Authority437 US 153, 1978) • The Endangered Species Act (FindLaw)

  19. American Alligator • American Alligator (National Parks Conservation Association) • American Alligator (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

  20. Timber Wolf • Timber Wolf Information Network • Timber Wolf in Wisconsin • Timber Wolf in Minnesota • Timber Wolf in Michigan • Timber Wolf (Fish and Wildlife Service) • Wolf Recovery, Political Ecology and Endangered Species (The Independent Institute)

  21. America's National Wildlife Refuge System

  22. National Wildlife Refuge System (Fish and Wildlife Service) • 542 national wildlife refuges, at least one in every state • Includes over 93 million acres of land • Most national wildlife refuges are strategically located along the major bird migration corridors, • Hundreds are home to endangered species, while others host big game - caribou, buffalo, deer, and elk • History of the NWR System (Fish and Wildlife Service) • History of the National Wildlife Refuge System (Wikipedia)

  23. Region 3 Midwest - National Wildlife Refuges • Agassiz • Big Stone • Crane Meadows • Glacial Ridge • Hamden Slough • Mille Lacs • Minnesota Valley • Northern Tallgrass Prairie • Rice Lake • Rydell • Sherburne • Tamarac • Upper Mississippi

  24. Region 3 Midwest – Wetland Management Districts • Detroit Lakes • Fergus Falls • Litchfield • Morris • Windom

  25. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife & Fish Refuge • Established: 1924 • 16 USC 721 et seq • Approx. 240,000 acres • Refuge covers 261 miles of the Mississippi River Valley from Wabasha, Minn., to Rock Island, Ill., and is divided into four districts • The refuge includes land owned by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 19 counties across four states

  26. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

  27. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge • October 8, 1976, P.L. 94-466 90 Stat. 1992 • June 25, 1984, P.L. 98-32798 Stat. 270 • Oct. 7 1998 H.R.4729 Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1998 • March 25 1999 H.R.1284 Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1999 • Wikipedia • Refuge Planning • Environmental Assessment (EPA) • Friends of the Minnesota Valley

  28. Minnesota • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources • Scientific & Natural Areas • Private Lands Program • Minnesota Endangered Species Program • Minnesota Department of Agriculture

  29. Environmental Nonprofits • Natural Resources Defense Council • Resources for the Future • Environmental Defense Fund • Worldwatch Institute • American Farmland Trust • National Wildlife Federation • Izaak Walton League • Sierra Club • The Wilderness Society • Union of Concerned Scientists

  30. Genetically Modified Organisms • Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980) • Breaking the Law of Life (Resurgence) • Lifeform Patenting • Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms (Human Genome Project) • Liability and Labeling of Genetically Modified Organisms • Genetically Modified Organisms (Aglaw) • Genetics Society of America, Statement on Genetically Modified Organisms • Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview Biotechnology: An Overview • GM Organisms (New Scientist) • GMOs at the FAO • Dolly the Sheep • Life Form Patenting and Family-Scale Agriculture: Implications and Recommendations (Center for Rural Affairs)