Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells
Stem Cells Exciting News!!! Stem cells are curing and healing people today! But…
Stem Cells There are two kinds of stem cells. • Adult stem cells • Embryonic stem cells
Stem Cells What are stem cells? (adult type and embryonic type) Undifferentiated cells that can develop into more specialized cells. Also called “master cells”, they are cells from which all other cells STEM.
Stem Cells • Adult stem cells come from many sources: • Bone marrow • Umbilical cord blood or umbilical cord matrix • Placentas • Fat • Mouth and nose • Baby teeth • Hair follicles • Muscle • Brain • Pancreas • Liver • ETC... • Every organ in the body has some adult stem cells.
Stem Cells Adult stem cellsindependent of their source, are pluripotent – they can form many types of cells. • Neurons, brain • Cells that line the lung and airways • Heart • Bone • Skin • Digestive tract • Muscle • Blood • Liver • Pancreas • Cornea • ETC…
Adultstem cells are used in many new treatments: (65 successful human therapies and growing…) • Stem cells from fat used to repair skull of 7 yr old girl in Germany. • Bedridden South Korean woman paralyzed 19 years ago can now use a walker. • Austrian doctors report women suffering from urinary stress incontinence are helped using their own muscle-derived stem cells. • Dennis Turner treated in 1999 using his own neural stem cells had an 80% reduction in Parkinson’s Disease symptoms. • Nathan Salley treated in 1999 for Acute Myloid Leukemia with umbilical cord blood transplant when 14 – he is still in remission. • Dimitri Bonnville from Michigan shot in the heart with a nail gun, had a massive heart attack. His own blood stem cells helped repair his heart.
Too many adult stem cell therapies to list! See www.stemcellresearch.org for the latest exciting information in stem cell research.
Embryonic stem cells? There has not been ONE successful human therapy developed with embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cells Stem cells taken from an embryo are referred to as embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cells Extracting embryonic stem cells always destroys the embryo.
Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells are then placed in culture dishes, where they continue to divide – and establish a stem cell line.
Terminology What is a human embryo? • A distinct, unified, self-integrating human organism. • A human life that exists – a human being (being = exists). • An embryo has the active (inherent) capacity to continue developing as a fetus, infant, child, and adult. • A human embryo is a human being in the embryonic stage just as an infant or adolescent is a human being in the infant or adolescent stage.
Terminology Source of confusion • Many people are confused because they believe the debate is about when human life begins. • But that’s not the question. Scientifically we know when human life begins. • The real issue under debate is when does human life have inherent value? • If not at the beginning, then when? Can human life ever be considered as property?
Terminology “Personhood” terminology has been used to take away individuals’ inherent rights. The term PERSON can be used for political, social, or theological purposes. It has historically been used based on an individual’ssubjective opinion. It has historically been used by one individual or group to indicate the moral or social value of another individual or group.
Terminology The term HUMAN BEING is a biological term that indicates a member of the human species.
Terminology • A human life begins when a diploid complement of human DNA is initiated to begin human development. • A self-developing organism with 46 human chromosomes is a human life that exists. • “Being” means “to exist.” A human life that exists is a human being. • Every human being existed once as an embryo. • An embryo is a stage of human development, just like a child or an adult is a stage of human development.
Stem Cells ABORTIONdoes not need to enter any stem cell discussion – Roe v. Wade was determined based on the woman’s right to her own body.
Stem Cells • Stem cells that are not embryonic are considered adult stem cells which can be obtained without harm from the source. • Adult stem cells are also called: • Post natal stem cells • Body stem cells • Somatic stem cells • Non-embryonic stem cells
Stem Cells It was initially expected that embryonicstem cells would be more plastic and more useful than adult stem cells. However, that research has been proven wrong.
Stem Cells Current research shows adult stem cells are easier to control than embryonic stem cells and have greater potential overall!
Stem Cells Given all of the above, why does embryonicstem cellresearch continue? • Because of “promise”, patents, and big biotech money. • It’s the nature of a scientist to want to experiment with complete freedom. But history has shown...we just can't give blank checks.
Stem Cells In the private sector there aren’t any restrictions on stem cell research except in a few states… …and only a few private companies continue with research on embryonic cells... …because it is the pluripotent adult stem cells that have proven to be so successful.
Stem Cells The tragedy is – the focus on embryonic stem cells has taken attention away from adult stem cells that are actively curing people today! Every $ that goes towards embryonic stem cell research is a $ taken away from adult stem cell research!!
Stem Cells Even before any ethical issues come into play - There is little scientific, medical, or economic reason to continue with embryonic stem cell research.
Stem Cells Embryonic stem cell research obstacles: 1) tumor formation 2) difficulty in obtaining pure cultures 3) immune rejection
Cloning What is the connection between embyronic stem cells and cloning?
Cloning The connection is embryonic stem cell problems... 1. Immune rejection When new embryonic stem cells are transplanted into a recipient, the body of the recipient will reject the new cells because the cells came from a different human being.
Cloning • The connection is embryonic stem cell problems... • Immune rejection • The hope is to avoid tissue rejection – by using stem cells from an embryo created by cloning. • The theory is that the stem cells will be exact genetic copies of the recipient’s own cells (not proven yet). • Adult stem cells, of course, already are exact genetic copies of the recipient’s own cells.
Cloning What’s the difference between cloning and fertilization?
Cloning Cloning is also known as… Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Cloning Cloning removes the nucleus of an ovum and then takes a somatic cell’s nucleus and tranfers it to the ovum. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) removes a nucleus of an ovum and then takes a somatic cell’s nucleus and tranfers it to the ovum.
Cloning Wired News, 12/01/04 http://www.wired.com/news/medtech/0,1286,65883,00.html “Therapeutic cloning, also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer, will not be the route to successful stem-cell therapies, many scientists say. In fact, if therapeutic cloning were vital, it would make stem-cell therapies prohibitively expensive.” "Not only would it be expensive, but logistically it could be impossible because you will have to have every single hospital in the world set up to do therapeutic cloning and prepared to do the different protocols," said Jose Cibelli, a cloning researcher at Michigan State University in East Lansing. “Because scientists don't know which, if any, methods will work, they hope they will be free to explore all of them.”
Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS • It’s a “religious” or subjective opinion about when human life begins. False, we know from science when human life begins. The question is – when does human life have inherent value? • Excess embryos will be destroyed anyway. False, 88 percent are designated for future attempts at pregnancy. Other embryos are wanted for adoption. (Snowflakes) • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT or so-called “therapeutic cloning”) does not involve creating human embryos because there is no sperm. False, a human embryo is created when a diploid complement of human DNA is initiated to begin human development.
Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS • SCNT advocates make diagrams leaving out the word embryo and use the term “blastocyst” instead. Blastocyst is another name for embryo – it is simply a developmental stage of the embryo. • Cloning advocates argue that human life doesn’t begin until the blastocyst is implanted on the wall of the uterus. There is no change in the genetic makeup of the human being that occurs during or after implantation. Artifical wombs will soon allow further development of human beings outside of the woman’s body. • Enacting a ban on all human cloning will “make criminals out of scientists.” No more so than other bans we have in place to prevent scientists from doing unethical research.
Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS • Banning somatic cell nuclear transfer will crush the state’s economy and will prevent the growth of biotechnology within the state. When the focus is only on proven and successful research with pluripotent adult stem cells, this will allow the state economy to grow faster. • Proposed legislation prohibits cloning of human “cells.” HB2355 specifically allows for the cloning of DNA and human cells – the bill only prohibits the cloning of human beings. • Those who favor cloning for research would never want to allow human clones to develop past two weeks of age. Scientists are already discussing how to move beyond this stage because of their lack of success with current research.
Cloning FALSEHOODS & DISTORTIONS • If someone received therapy from this research they would become a “felon” if they entered Kansas. This is a ludicrous statement for two reasons. 1) It’s like saying that if someone ate beef from a mad cow in another country, they would be a felon by simply entering the United States and 2) this possiblity is not even on the horizon because there hasn’t been any success with embryonic stem cell research.
Cloning • Artificial wombs – steps have already been taken with animals in Japan. • Some scientists would like to gestate human embryos in animal wombs. Washington Post, January 16, 2004 • New Jersey allows cloning and implantation up to birth, and mandates the human being must be destroyed before birth.
Cloning puts women at risk for exploitation Notable feminists opposing these technologies: • Foremost promoter of Proposition 71 in California – state senator DeborahOrtiz (D) called for a moratorium on egg extraction. She is concerned about the effect the procedures have on women. • JudyNorsigian, executive director of Our Bodies Ourselves, says, “A primary concern is the substantial risks to women's health posed by the extraction procedure and the inability to obtain true informed consent from egg donors given the current lack of adequate safety data.” • U.S. SenatorMary Landrieu (D-Louisanna), cosponsored human cloning ban with Sen. Brownback. • U.S. SenatorLisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), has signed as a cosponsor.
Cloning Over 60 countries around the world ban all forms of human cloning. • France (7 year jail sentence) • Germany • Canada (5 yr jail sentence) • Australia • Norway • Switzerland • U.N. declaration condemning human cloning
Cloning • Michigan • Iowa • Arkansas • North Dakota • South Dakota • Louisianna States that have banned all forms of human cloning. None of these states’ biotech industries have suffered as a result.
Natural Law • Self-evident truths • Foundational principles at some level known to everyone • Built into human nature and the human mind • We can’t NOT know it • Also known as the moral law
Natural Law or Religion? • Many religions are strongly against SCNT, • BUT they are not always against it just because of • any particular religious document or • any particular biblical verse However it is a result of – • careful reasoning based on science • AND careful reasoning based on natural law
Natural Law Science The question of when human life begins has already been answered by science through scientific methods, and also by studying human embryology and human developmental biology. Natural Law What has not yet been resolved by the secular public is the question of when human life has intrinsic value…
Natural Law If not at the very beginning, then WHEN?
Natural Law If human life does not have inherent worth at the very beginning, then by default there is a period of time when that human being is considered as PROPERTY
Natural Law PROPERTY Who has the right to own human beings? For how long do they own them?
Natural Law Through natural law and natural rights, the moral truth can be discovered about the moral status of an embryo. It is self-evident that no human being should ever be considered as property.
Natural Law Protecting human life at all stages agrees with every religion that defends the truth of inherent human dignity, and agrees with every religion that believes human beings are meant to be ends in themselves and not means only.