Oldest plants • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0601.htm • Plants evolved from sea to land • Earliest plants include algae, liverworts, mosses, ferns, to eventually seed plants, etc……. • Asexual vs. Sexual reproduction • Non-Vascular vs. Vascular
Stomatal opening:1. Potassium ions are pumped into the water vacuoles of the guard cells (from low to high concentration) by active transport.2. Water diffuses into the vacuoles (high to to low concentration).3. The guard cells expand.4.The stomate opens.
Conditions that promote opening of stomata:1. Low CO2 levels in the leaf2. DaylightConditions that promote closing of stomata:1. Low H2O levels in the leaf2. Cold temperatures3. Night time
CO2 levels in leaf low (H2O levels high) Stomata close Stomata open H2O levels in leaf low (CO2 levels high) NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Closure:1. What cells have the most chloroplasts?2. The vein of the leaf is composed of _______ and ______.3. Air spaces in the spongy mesophyll are connected to the outside environment through the __________.
QOD: Provide a detailed description of the processes and steps involved in the opening of a stomate and the closing of a stomate in a leaf. Include in your description the following terms: osmosisChloroplastsK+ ionsdiffusionconcentration gradientactive transportwatercell membraneturgor pressure hypotonic solutionstomateCO2 levels in leafH2O levels in leaf
Gymnosperms-are a group of seed-bearing plants that includesconifers, cycads, Ginkgo and Gnetales. The term "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek word gymnospermos(γυμνόσπερμος), meaning“naked seeds.” Medicinal uses include: increase improved circulation and memory. One of the oldest living plants Douglas fir cone Gingko biloba
Angiosperms (an-jee-oh-spurmz), which are also called flowering plants, bear their seeds within a layer of tissue (fruit/ovary) that protects the seed.
Every year, apical meristems divide to produce new, primary growth which is an increase in length.
Ground Tissue Cells Includes Pith and Cortex Cells of Roots and Stems
Xylem (zy-lum), a form of vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant. Tracheids (cells that makeup xylem) are hollow (dead) cells with thick cell walls that resist pressure. Within a plant, they are connected end to end like a series of drinking straws. Phloem (floh-um) transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. The main cells of phloem (which are alive) are long and specialized to move fluids throughout the plant body.
Root pressure, capillary action, and transpiration contribute to the movement of water within a plant. Transpiration is the movement of water molecules out of leaves. The faster water evaporates from a plant, shown in A, the stronger the pull of water upward from the roots, shown in B.
Capillary action is the result of water molecules’ ability to stick to one another and to the walls of a tube—contributes to the movement of water up the cells of xylem tissue.
QOD:1. In what root zone are cells reproduced?2. In what root zone do cells grow?3. In what root zone do cells differentiate?
QOD:1. How are the vascular bundles arranged in a monocot stem? Dicot stem? 2. What is the name of the meristematic tissue that produces new xylem and phloem and results in an increase in the diameter of the stem?