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Video Camera Operations PowerPoint Presentation
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Video Camera Operations

Video Camera Operations

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Video Camera Operations

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  1. 4 Video Camera Operations

  2. Objectives • Understand how white balancing a camera affects the picture. • Summarize how depth of field contributes to composing a good picture. • Identify the composition of each type of camera shot. • Illustrate a variety of camera movements. • Explain how a videographer can psychologically and physically affect the audience.

  3. Important Rule • If audience cannot see it on screen, it does not exist–unless you give clues that allow audience to assume that what they do not see does indeed exist. • Example: talent playing a guitar. Audience does not need to see entire neck of guitar–they will assume it is there.

  4. White Balance • Camera needs to be “told” what white is, called white balancing • When balanced, camera sees all other colors correctly • Zoom in on white object on set • Activate white balance circuit on camera • Zoom back out and shoot normally

  5. Pre-focus Zoom Lens • Zoom in on farthest important object • Focus • Zoom out • After pre-focus, everything from 6’ in front of camera to object in step 2 will be in focus

  6. Zoom/Macro • Zoomed-in image is similar to telescope image • Macro image is similar to microscope image

  7. Minimum Object Distance (MOD) • When camera moves toward object–the point where lens can no longer focus

  8. Depth of Field (DOF) • Understanding DOF will give camera operator tremendous control on what audience looks at in total picture

  9. Great Depth of Field • Great DOF is found in nearly all television and film shots because it keeps nearly everything in the shot in focus • No one thing in picture stands out

  10. Shallow Depth of Field • Lens is manipulated so that DOF is very narrow and only single object in entire image is in focus, leaving rest of picture out of focus • Shallow DOF causes one object in picture to stand out dramatically

  11. Shallow Depth of Field (Cont.) • Selective depth of fieldis choice made by director/camera operator • In shallow DOF, camera operator often rotates lens to shift from one item being in focus to another item being in focus • Focusing while camera is hot is rack focus,or pull focus

  12. Shallow Depth of Field (Cont.)

  13. Factors Affecting DOF • Aperture • Subject to camera distance • Focal length • Changing any or all of 1-3 changes size of DOF • Set lighting does not affect depth of field

  14. Discussion Why are there so many lights in ceiling of television studio?

  15. Rule of Thirds • Tic-tac-toe grid imagined on TV screen • Important items in shot placed at intersections of grid lines • Do not center important items on screen

  16. Head Room • Use rule of thirds when framing head room

  17. Nose Room • Use rule of thirds when framing nose room

  18. Shot Sheets • Shot= picture • Before shot sheets can be created, every shot in scene must be assigned a consecutive number • Only camera 1’s shots are on camera 1’s shot sheet • Shot sheets make complex shooting much simpler

  19. Wide Shots • Extreme long shot (ELS/XLS),also called wide angle shot (WA) • Establishing shot–wide angle shot of gigantic spaceships in battle in asteroid belt space indicates program is science fiction • Long shot (LS)

  20. Extreme Long Shot

  21. Long Shot

  22. Individual Subject Shots • Medium long shot (MLS),also called knee shot • Medium shot (MS),also called mid shot • Medium close-up (MCU),also called bust shot • Close-up (CU),also called narrow angle shot • Extreme close-up (ECU/XCU)

  23. Medium Long Shot

  24. Medium Shot

  25. Medium Close-up

  26. Close-up

  27. Extreme Close-up

  28. Multiple Subject Shots • Two shot • Three shot • Four shot • Group shot

  29. Specific View Shots • Reaction shot–shot of woman’s face as man off camera asks her to marry him • Profile shot • Over-the-shoulder shot (OSS)

  30. Profile Shot

  31. OSS

  32. Dolly • dolly in (DI) • dolly out (DO)

  33. Pan • Pan right (PR) • Pan left (PL)

  34. Truck • Truck right (TR) • Truck left (TL)

  35. Tilt • Tilt up (TU) • Tilt down (TD)

  36. Pedestal • Pedestal up (PedU) • Pedestal down (PedD)

  37. Arc • Arc right (AR) • Arc left (AL)

  38. Psychology of Presentation • Low angle shot makes subject powerful, respected, and feared by audience • High angle shot makes audience feel that subject is weak and insignificant • Consistent slight low/high angle will manipulate audience’s opinion of subject • Extreme low/high angle is comedic

  39. Career Page • Interesting information about job descriptions, duties, and outlooks for television camera operators •

  40. Discussion In broadcast journalism newscasts, what are ethical considerations of use of low and high angle shots? News should be unbiased and not manipulative. That said, is it? What are examples of when and how this manipulation of public might occur?

  41. Review Question What three steps are necessary to pre-focus zoom lens? Zoom in on farthest object that must be in focus; focus; zoom out

  42. Review Question What is the purpose of an establishing shot? It tells audience where and when action is taking place.

  43. Review Question Imagine vase sitting on a table in a room. How many of the various camera angles can be used to shoot it? All of them except reaction shot.

  44. Review Question What is the value of selective depth of field? It allows single item in shot to be dramatically presented to audience. It controls exactly where audience’s eyes are looking.

  45. Review Question What three factors affect depth of field? Aperture size; subject to camera distance; focal length

  46. Review Question Identify several camera movements and their abbreviations. Dolly, dolly in (DI), dolly out (DO); pan, pan right (PR), pan left (PL); truck, truck right (TR), truck left (TL); tilt, tilt up (TU), tilt down (TD); pedestal, pedestal up (PedU), pedestal down (PedD); arc, arc right (AR), arc left (AL)

  47. Glossary • arc: Moving the camera in a curved truck around the main subject in the shot—the main subject never leaves the frame of the picture. • arc left (AL): Rolling the camera, tripod, and dolly in a circle to the camera operator’s left (clockwise) around the subject of a shot.

  48. Glossary • arc right (AR): Rolling the camera, tripod, and dolly in a circle to the camera operator’s right (counterclockwise) around the subject of a shot. • close-up (CU): A shot that captures a subject from the top of the head to just below the shoulders. Also called a narrow angle shot.

  49. Glossary • depth of field (DOF): The distance between the closest point to the camera that is in focus and the furthest point from the camera that is also in focus. • dolly: Physically moving the camera, its tripod, and dolly perpendicularly toward or away from the set. • dolly in (DI): Smoothly pushing the camera directly forward toward the set.