Sentences • Objective by the end of this section you will be able to: • Identify the different parts of a sentence. • Identify and properly use different types of punctuation. • Build strong and effective sentences.
Kinds of Sentences • The Fragment • The Run-on • Complete Sentences (3) • The Simple Sentence • The Compound Sentence • The Complex Sentence
The Fragment A fragment is an incomplete sentence. When reading a fragment, you know something is missing. Ex: The girl brushing her hair How can this fragment be made into a complete sentence?
Finishing the Fragment Ex: The girl brushing her hair • The girl is brushing her hair. • The girl brushing her hair is pretty. • I saw the girl brushing her hair. • Is the girl brushing her hair? Now you try it on the fragment sheet you have!
The Run-on A run-on sentence has lots of ideas all trying to fit into one complete sentence. It seems to go on forever and it leaves the reader confused. Example: On my way to work I got a flat tire but I couldn’t change it myself so I tied a white cloth to the antenna and waited inside my car until finally a passing motorist stopped when he noticed the white cloth and offered to change the tire for me even though he was in a hurry he stopped because he is an individual who cares about other people. How can we fix a run-on sentence?
How to…fix a run-on! End Punctuation – shows the end of a complete sentence. The Period [ . ] • The period ends a complete sentence. The Question Mark [ ? ] • The question mark ends a complete sentence that asks a question. The Exclamation Mark [ ! ] • The exclamation mark ends a complete sentence that expresses a strong feeling. Finish the run-on sentence activity on the following sheet.
How to…fix a run-on! • The Conjunction – The conjunction is a word that is used to connect two complete thoughts. Each of these is a conjunction: and, but, or. In the following sentence, two thoughts are connected but the conjunction but. I would have helped change the tire, but I didn’t have time to stop. *REMEMBER* You must use a comma [ , ] before each conjunction. LOOK !! Do the attached conjunction work now!
How to…fix a run-on! • The Semicolon – A semicolon [ ; ] is used to connect two related sentences when they are not joined by a conjunction. A semicolon can take the place of a conjunction. Conjunction He cares about other people, and he always offers to help. Semicolon He cares about other people; he always offers to help. *REMEMBER* The first word AFTER the semicolon begins with a lower case (small) letter. Do the attached work on semicolons now.
3 Kinds of Complete Sentences • The Simple Sentence • The Compound Sentence • The Complex Sentence
The Simple Sentence The simple sentence tells us who or what the sentence is about. The who or what (a person or a thing) is the SUBJECT of the sentence. A simple sentence also tells us what the subject DOES, or that IT EXISTS, and WHERE IT IS. Study the examples and answer the questions on the attached “The Simple Sentence” worksheet.
The Compound Sentence A Compound Sentence is made of two simple sentences that are joined by a conjunction such as AND, BUT, OR. Each of the following compound sentences contain two simple sentences which are underlined. A comma is used before each conjunction. The girl pulled the cat’s tail, and the cat ran away. She tried to pull the cat’s tail, but the cat ran away. Would she like a cat, or would she rather have a dog? Complete the attached exercise for “The Compound Sentence”
The Complex Sentence A complex sentence has a subordinate clause (a fragment) and a main clause (it can stand alone as a complete sentence). fragment + complete sentence = complex sentence In the following examples, the subordinate clause comes first and the main clause second; there is a COMMA between. subordinate clause (comma) main clause If I plan ahead, I can achieve all my goals. When you leave the room, please close the door quietly. Do the first part of “The Complex Sentence” worksheet and then of to The Next Step
Complex Sentences Continued… • Notice the difference in these examples of Complex Sentences: You do NOT need to use a comma when a complex sentence begins with a main clause. Main clause subordinate clause I can achieve all my goals if I plan ahead. Please close the door quietly when you leave the room. Finish the remaining “The Complex Sentence” questions and move onto the Composition Assignment
Period [ . ] • Use a period to show the end of a sentence. Ex: • Hockey is a popular sport in Canada. • The federal government is based in Ottawa. • Use a period after certain abbreviations. Ex: • B.C. is the province located on the West Coast. • Dr. Bethune was a Canadian who worked in China. • The company is located at 888 Bay St. in Toronto. • It is 4:00 p.m. in Halifax right now.
Question Mark • Use a question mark at the end of a sentence to show a direct question. • How many provinces are there in Canada? • Note: do not use a question mark for indirect questions. • The teacher asked the class a question. Do not ask me why.
Exclamation Mark • Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence to show surprise or excitement. Ex: • We won the Stanley Cup! • The forest is on fire! • **CAUTION**Do not overuse exclamation marks. Too many will take away the emphasis they are intended for!
Comma [ , ] • Use a comma to show a pause in a sentence. • Therefore, we should write a letter to the prime minister. • Use a comma with quotation marks to show what someone has said directly. • "I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow." • Use commas for listing three or more different things. • Ontario, Quebec, and B.C. are the three biggest provinces. • Use commas around relative clauses that add extra information to a sentence. • Emily Carr, who was born in 1871, was a great painter.
Quotation Marks • Use quotation marks to show what someone has said directly. • The prime minister said, "We will win the election." • "I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow." • You will also use quotation marks to create a bibliography or “works cited”, as a part of your research essay. We will cover that later though.
Colon [ : ] • Use a colon to introduce a list of things. • There are three positions in hockey: goalie, defence, and forward. • Use a colon to introduce a long quotation. • The prime minister said: “We will fight. We will not give up. We will win the next election."
Semicolon [ ; ] • Use a semicolon to join related sentences together. • The festival is very popular; people from all over the world visit each year. • Use a semicolon in lists that already have commas. • The three biggest cities in Canada are Toronto, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec; and Vancouver, B.C.
Dash [ - ] • Use a dash before a phrase that summarizes the idea of a sentence. • Mild, wet, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in Vancouver. • Use a dash before and after a phrase or list that adds extra information in the middle of a sentence. • The children - Pierre, Laura, and Ashley - went to the store. Most Canadians - but not all - voted in the last election. • Use a dash to show that someone has been interrupted when speaking. • The woman said, "I want to ask - " when the earthquake began to shake the room.
Hyphen [ - ] • Use a hyphen to join two words that form one idea together. • sweet-smelling • fire-resistant • Use a hyphen to join prefixes to words. • anti-Canadian • non-contact • Use a hyphen when writing compound numbers. • one-quarter • twenty-three