Classroom ManagementBoot Camp for New Teachers! Regina M. Oliver, Ph.D., BCBA-D & Troy Baker
Advanced Organizer • Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview • Why is Classroom Management Important? • Effective Classroom Management • Principles of Behavior • Student-Teacher Relationships • How to Access Help in your Building
BIST Main Components Behavioral Intervention Support Team 2 School-wide Rules 3 Life Skills Grace and Accountability Early Intervention Triage
2 School-wide Rules It’s never OK to be disruptive. It’s never OK to be hurtful.
Three Life Skills I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble. I can be OK even if others are not. I can do something even when I don’t want to.
What students need to change: Grace and Accountability
Grace is: • Giving Responsibility and Accountability to Children in Education • Providing what students need, “You’re too important to let you behave this way.” • Having a relationship when students reject you • Having the courage to hold students accountable
Grace is not: • Being permissive, that’s enabling • Lowering standards • Giving more chances • Rigid, but there are clear boundaries
Accountability is: • Guiding students to look at what problem the behaviors create in the students’ lives and how they can develop the 3 life skills • Providing consequences to protect them and a plan to practice missing skills • Waiting for students to partner with adults
Accountability is not: • Using anger to get to compliance • Punishing students • Withholding attention, the relationship is a means to accountability • Lecturing kids
The 5 Steps to Accountability: • I did it. • I’m sorry. • It’s part of a problem in my life. • I accept the consequences. • I accept and need help.
Four Questions the Adult Community Must Answer • What does the student’s repetitious behavior tell us s/he can’t manage? • What restrictions does s/he need based on what s/he can’t manage? • What skill do we need to teach them while s/he is restricted? • What will the integration process from restrictions to no restrictions look like?
Discussion Questions • How do you feel about GRACE and ACCOUNTABILITY? What information do you need? • Do you feel that the students can reach all 5 Steps to Accountability? • What are the purposes of restrictions? What should restrictions look like at Everett? What shouldn’t they look like?
Early Intervention • Stop the behavior when you see it, don’t wait until you feel it. • Be intrusive • Deal with “Gateway Behaviors” • What good classroom managers do all the time (proximity, the evil eye, etc.)
Gateway Behaviors • What are the gateway behaviors that you see in your classroom? On the playground? In the hallways? In the cafeteria? • What classroom management techniques do you use to stop them?
Three Levels of Triage • Building level • Classroom level • Individual or small group
Building Triage • Arrange supervision so every child is greeted. • The best way to keep problems out of the building is through personal contact.
Classroom Triage • A quick glance at the class. • Teachers already do this, but we need to be consistent and intentional. • It takes 5-7 minutes • Be sure to include a way to know how students are doing emotionally.
Individual Triage • Designed as a proactive measure to meet individual student needs. • Increase relationships for student within the building. • Develop student’s skills to identify feelings and problem-solve. • Can be prior to the start of the day and/or throughout the day.
Caring Confrontation • What do you think of when you hear the word confrontation? • Confrontation is frequently associated with negative emotions • Never confront with anger • We want to use language that will allow the student to partner with us as we strive towards change and growth.
Caring Confrontation • Use phrases that focus on the student • “I see… (disruptive behavior)” • “Can you… (desired behavior)” • “Even though… (student’s feeling)” • Practice these at your table…
Placement Continuum • Regular Seat • Safe Seat • Buddy Room • Recovery • Office • Home DECIDE WHERE THEY GO BASED ON WHERE THE ACTING OUT STOPS.
Processing • Build relationship--”How are you?” • Find out what happened-- “Can you tell me what happened?” • Identify the missing skill-- “Sounds like you weren’t OK when...” • Validate-- “I would be mad too if…” • Connect the feeling to the behavior-- “What did you do when you were mad?” • Set standard and goal-- “At this school it’s never going to be OK to …” • Plan to manage the missing skill--”Next time you’re mad, what will you say/do? Where will you go? Who will you talk to?” • Practice • Guide an Apology & Restitution
Processing Processing always goes back to the 3 Life Skills: I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in trouble. I can be OK even if others are not. I can do something even when I don’t want to.
How students move through the continuum… • Moving to the safe seat • Moving to the buddy room • Moving to recovery (what and where is recovery)
Key is Building Relationships with Students We do this through: • Triage • Closure for students (handshake, goodbye, high five, hug, etc) • What else? Brainstorm and share ways that you build relationships in your classroom.
What is PBiS? • STUDENTS • 5 % • 5-10% • 80-90% The purpose of school wide PBiS is to establish a climate in which appropriate behavior is the norm.
PBiS is not... • a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior • limited to any particular group of students…it is for all students • new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies
Three Tier Prevention Model Logic • Primary/Universal interventions implemented with ALL to prevent inappropriate behavior • Secondary/Targeted interventions implemented with SOME to reverse inappropriate behavior patterns • Tertiary/Individualized interventions implemented with a FEW to reduce harmful effects of severe behavior
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Multi-Tiered Systems of Support 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Why is Classroom Management Important? • Single most common request for assistance from teachers is related to behavior and classroom management (Rose & Gallup, 2005) • School discipline issues such as disruptive classroom behavior increase teacher stress and burnout (Burke, Greenglass, & Schwarzer, 1996; Smith & Smith, 1996) • One of the top reasons teachers leave the profession
Insufficient Classroom Management Competencies • Higher rates of discipline problems in the classroom (Berliner, 1986; Espin & Yell, 1994) • Lost instructional time and decreased academic engagement (Gunter et al., 1993) • Teachers find it more challenging to meet the instructional demands of the classroom (Emmer & Stough, 2001) • Teachers will be less effective in improving student outcomes in academics (Tooke, 1997)
Prevention Efforts • Children’s behavior is shaped by the social context of the environment during the developmental process • The progression and malleability of maladaptive behavior is affected by classroom management practices of teachers in the early grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002) • Aggressive students in aggressive, disruptive classroom environments are more likely to be aggressive in later grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002)
Effective Classroom Management Plans • Daily Schedule • Physical Organization • Class Rules • Class Routines • Managing Student Work • Accommodating Diversity • Collecting Data and Adjusting Plan
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management • Maximize structure • Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations • Actively engage students in observable ways. • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior • Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)
1. Maximize structure in your classroom • Develop Predictable Routines • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc. • Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. • Designate staff & student areas. • Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
Classroom Physical Arrangement • Visibility • Teacher see students at all times • Students see teacher, instructional materials, and displays • Accessibility • Teacher movement and access to all students • Students and teacher easily access materials • Keep high traffic areas free of congestion • Distractibility • Students seated away from obvious distractors • Separate disruptive students Evertson & Harris (2003)
2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Establish behavioral expectations/rules. • Teach rules in context of routines. • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. • Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
A Little Clarification About Expectations and Rules… SW Expectations Class Expectations Classroom Rules (Behavioral Examples of Expectations) CHAMPS helps with this Expectations for Routines
Establishing Expectations Expectations/Rules • expected norms of behavior • Function: to prevent or encourage certain behaviors • Rules are limited in number and do not change Routines • ways of getting classroom activities completed • Function: to establish routines for predictability, reducing problem behavior, and saving time • Procedures are unlimited in number and may change
Classroom Expectations vs. Classroom Rules • Expectations: behaviors expected of all students and staff in all settings • Rules: specific skills you want students to exhibit and the procedures you want students to follow in specific settings
Similarities Between Expectations and Rules • Both should be positively stated – tell students what you want them to do • Both should be limited in number • Both should line up with your school’s school-wide expectations • Both will clarify criteria for success
Develop a Plan for Teaching Students to Engage in Routines Conversation: How much & what type? Help: How do they let you know they need it? Activity: What is it? How long should it take? Movement: How and when can students move? Participation: How will students be active and show engagement?
C onversation • What does it sound like? • Can they engage in conversations? • How loud? How will you judge this? (Zone system?)
H elp • Hand Signal (1 finger, 2 fingers, 3 fingers) • Colored toilet paper tube (red and green) • Styrofoam cup on a string • Flags on the desk • Cardstock pyramid: “Please help me” and “Please keep working” • Stand up your textbook • Post-It for Help • “Red Folder” of alternative work Tip: Students always continue to work while waiting
A ctivityovement articipation • What does it look like? M P