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Behavior & Classroom Management

Behavior & Classroom Management

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Behavior & Classroom Management

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  1. Behavior & Classroom Management Presented by: Shawn Fletcher Content by: Chris Borgmeier, PhD cborgmei@pdx.edu www.web.pdx.edu/~cborgmei

  2. Next weeks Quiz

  3. Reading Review • Sugai, et al., 2000 • Borgmeier, 2005 • FBA instructional packet & forms

  4. Functional Behavioral Assessment & Individualized Interventions

  5. Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA): • An assessment used for students with the most significant behavior problems to: • identify the Functionof behavior • how the problem behavior is paying off for the student • identify variables that predict and maintain problem behavior • develop a Behavior Support Plan (BSP) • based on the function of behavior

  6. Goals of the FBA process • FBA should help us to: • Focus on things we can change • Narrow the problem • focus our understanding of the students behavioral concerns • Increase efficiency • in identifying effective interventions • Reduce problematic interventions • The ultimate goal of FBA is efficiency; we want to do the least amount of assessment & data collection that will give us the most information to guide intervention selection • Informal FBA to Practical FBA to Formal FBA

  7. Partner ActivityFBA: Summary of Behavior Time’s Up • The Summary of Behavior must be specific and detailed • Difficult math task is not specific or detailed enough to inform how to modify the task Identify interventions for the following FBA Summary of Behavior Antecedent: Difficult math task Behavior: Negative comments Function: Sent to office Avoids difficult task

  8. Use Data to Refine the Problem Statement • The framing of a problem statement is important • Problems are often framed in a “Primary” form that is not useful for problem-solving. • Describe primary problems based on initial review of data. • Use more detailed review of data to build “Precise (Solvable) Problem Statements”.

  9. Primary vs. Precision Statements • Primary Statements • Too many referrals • They are suspended all the time • They bully everyone • They are out of control on the playground • They have no respect for authority • Precision Statements • The student has 10 ODRs for aggression on the playground. Problems are most likely to occur during recess with other classes, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment. • Who • What • When • Where • Why

  10. Partner ActivityFBA: Summary of Behavior Time’s Up Identify interventions for the following FBA Summary of Behavior Routine/ Setting: Math group – independent work Avoid difficult Math tasks

  11. Who should be referred for an FBA?

  12. Typical Staff response to behavior of students who are not receiving the correct Tier of support Evidence Based Practice Tier 3: FBA/BSP (5%) 6+ Discipline Referrals Tier 2: CICO (15%) 3-5 Discipline Referrals Tier 1: SW-PBIS (80%) 0-2 Discipline Referrals

  13. Typical Staff response to behavior of students who are not receiving the correct Tier of support Evidence Based Practice Tier 3: FBA/BSP (5%) 6+ Discipline Referrals 5 + Referrals TIME & CHANGE in Staff behavior required to generate desired outcome Tier 2: CICO (15%) 3-5 Discipline Referrals • Punishment doesn’t work if: • The students don’t know what to do • The students don’t know “how“ • The problem behavior is too reinforcing 2-4 Referrals Tier 1: SW-PBIS (80%) 0-2 Discipline Referrals 0-1 Referrals

  14. FBA/BSP as a Protection for Students • The law has built in safeguards for IEP students with significant behavioral concerns to protect their right to an appropriate education • We cannot by law continually remove students from instruction (through detention, suspension or a change in placement) due to behavior problems • By doing so we are depriving them of FAPE (a Free Appropriate Public Education)

  15. First, who is legally required to have an FBA completed? • FBA is required by LAW for students with IEPs who have missed 10 days of instruction (due to suspension or change in placement) for disciplinary reasons • We need to identify students at-risk of missing 10 days of school due to suspension & begin an FBA when students reach 6-7 days of suspension

  16. Why do we need FBA/BSP? • Schools have an obligation to educate ALL students • even those who pose the most significant behavioral challenges • Schools need the best tools • to support students with significant behavioral concerns • Research shows it works • developing behavioral interventions based on function of behavior is most effective

  17. Who else can be referred for FBA? • FBA is not only for SPED students • But it can only be legally required for SPED students • FBA is also for students who: • chronically engage in problem behavior • disruptive to the school environment • nothing else is working for • previous SST, IEP, etc. has not been effective • engage in potentially dangerous behavior

  18. ACTIVITYPrioritize these students according to how much they need an FBA Date = December 8th • Jorge - 7 days of suspension, w/ IEP • Nick - 12 ODRs, 6 days of suspension w/ no IEP, no SST • Claudia - 11 days of suspension, w/ IEP • Fatima – 2 days of suspension, w/ IEP • Bjorn – 14 days of suspension – no IEP, w/ SST

  19. Prioritize the students below in how much they need an FBA • Claudia - 11 days of suspension, w/ IEP • She is out of compliance by Law – need FBA started today • Jorge - 7 days of suspension, w/ IEP • IEP student who is quickly approaching 10 days of suspension • Bjorn – 14 days of suspension – no IEP, w/ SST • No legal mandate, but student for whom an SST has not been working w/ too much suspension – certainly would benefit from FBA, but not mandated, yet • Nick – 12 office referrals, 6 days of suspension -- no IEP, no SST • Refer for SST, other students should be priority right now • Fatima – 2 days of suspension, w/ IEP • No great risk of yet

  20. Understanding Behavior: The foundation for FBA

  21. Learning A  B  C Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence

  22. We Must Think of Behavior as Functional, not GOOD or BAD • Functional = it pays off for the student in some way…so they do it again. We may see the behavior as being “good” or “bad”, but the student does it because it is effective, it pays off for them.

  23. Function Matters • Behavioral Function • The consequence that maintains a behavior • Obtain/get positive (events, objects, activities, sensations) • Avoid/escape negative (events, objects, activities, sensations) • Address Function • Decrease Problem Behavior (Results may vary) • Don’t Address Function • Risk frustrating/failed interventions • Risk unintentionally reinforcing problem behavior

  24. Ingram, Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 2005

  25. What are the results of an FBA?

  26. It is all about the Summary of Behavior • If you know the summary of bx. you don’t need a FBA • The Summary of bx. has to be specific to inform: • The function of behavior • Interventions likely to help

  27. Summary of Behavior Identify the Routine in which to understand the Behavior AntecedentsBehaviorConsequence Identify the Function of Behavior based on what the student has learned from the A B C sequence

  28. Summary of Behavior - Be specific & clear • Routine/ Setting: • FBAs are built around specific routine so the information collected can be focused & specific?

  29. Summary of Behavior Example - Joe Routine/ Setting: Math group – math tasks • Function: • Can you identify the function of behavior? • What has the student learned that maintains the behavior or makes it pay off? Function: Avoid difficult Math tasks

  30. Functional Behavioral AssessmentIdentifying an Accurate Function FACTS Part A Routines Analysis

  31. Strengths Routines Analysis

  32. Understanding Behavior in a Context / Routine • Look at behavior within a routine/context • The same behavior can generate different outcomes • If we just look at the type of behavior, the function may vary across routines • Interventions need to be developed to address the differences in routines and behavioral function • Interventions need to look very different for a student who yells, throws things on the floor, and runs around the room: • during large group Phys. Ed. to get teacher attention and • during small group reading to avoid frustrating reading tasks

  33. Start Broad & Narrow FocusRoutines Analysis • Purpose: To identify & focus in on a specific problem behavior routine, from which to continue the assessment to ID the function of behavior • The assessment must narrow the focus to a specific pattern of behavior in order to develop an effective intervention • Looking under the hood of a car

  34. Routines Analysis

  35. Routines Analysis Example – JoeEfficiency – Complete in Advance

  36. Routines Analysis Example – JoeTrack down the teachers to complete Do you notice any initial trends or have any initial hypotheses?

  37. Identify Targeted Routine Defining the Behavior(s) of Concern

  38. Identify Routine & Behaviors of Concern • Look at the next slide and examine the Routines Analysis: • Which times/routines are most problematic? • Any initial hypotheses or trends to note? • Prioritize routines/behaviors to focus on • Differentiate separate routines

  39. Identify Joe’s Prioritized Routines #1 #2

  40. What are the Targeted Routines?

  41. What happens if we don’t look at behavior within Routines?

  42. FAQ – Do I always focus on just one routine at a time? • We encourage you to start with 1 routine at a time, because it is easy to get overwhelmed with students w/ beh’l concerns – NARROW THE FOCUS • You can combine routines but only when there is significant similarity of (a) activities and (b) problem behavior(s). • For example: • Similarity of Structure, Activities & Demands - student has difficulties during lunch, recess, passing times • Similarity of problem behavior – teases and calls peers names • In this case you could probably combine routines • lunch, recess, passing times = “unstructured times with peers”

  43. Partner Activity: Would you combine the Routines Below? Why? Time’s Up • Routine 1 - Reading • Routine 2 – Social Studies • When asked to do work/ class activities that involve reading aloud or answering questions based on reading comprehension • Behavior = talking back to teacher, work refusal and throwing book and tearing up paper • Routine 1 – Reading • Routine 2 – Math • The students concerns in math are related to low math skills • Behavior = talking back to teacher, work refusal and throwing book and tearing up paper Similar Activity, Demands & Behavior Different Activities & Demands YES NO Example #1 Example #2

  44. Defining the Problem Behavior Focus on the Targeted Routine

  45. Identify Problem Behaviors for the identified routine 2 x x 1 3 x x x x Student calls work “stupid”, “dumb”, calls teacher a “bad teacher” and “dumb”, refuses to do work, throws book and paper on the floor, tears up paper, walks around the room • Focus on the single routine you have prioritized. • e.g. Identify the problem behaviors you have seen in Math… • Check those behaviors that occur in the target routine • Rank the top 3 most concerning problem behaviors in that routine. • Provide a brief description of exactly what the behaviors look like (observable & measurable) • This definition should be so clear that you could clearly identify when the behavior does or does not occur

  46. Frequency & Duration Ask the interviewee if the behavior poses an immediate danger to the student or others. Dangers can be defined as directly injuring another with their behavior (hitting, throwing dangerous objects, etc.) If it is determined that the behaviors are dangerous, then refer the case to a behavior specialist. Ask about the frequency & duration of the occurrences of the problem behavior in that target routine

  47. Activity 1: FACTS Part A • With a partner, role-play using the FACTS Part-A form in the activity packet (pages 1-2) • List the Routines in Order of Priority • B. Assign an interviewer & interviewee • Interviewer will ask questions from FACTS Part A starting at the BEHAVIOR(s) prompt & record interviewee responses • Interviewee will use the script in activity pack (bottom of page 2) • Rank order problem behavior • Describe problem behavior • Estimate frequency & duration

  48. Insert Shane’s definition

  49. Does Behavior Escalate?