Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom – Module 1 (K-5) Cajon Valley Union School District Summer Academy June/August 2013
Welcome & Introductions Thank you for your attendance today! Please… Sign-in Review your materials Meet today’s presenters
Today’s Agenda Part 1 -Positive Behavior Support: A Professional Discussion – Beliefs, Principles, and Lessons Learned Part 2 - Why Are We Here? – The Significant Disproportionality – Coordinated Early Intervening Services Plan Part 3 - What Can We Do? – PBS and the Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Part 4 – How Teachers Create Positive Classroom Environments – Being STOIC
Today’s Agenda cont. Part 5 –ExplicitlyTeaching Classroom Expectations – The Curriculum of PBS Part 6:Gaining and Maintaining Student Interest – Expectancy x Value = Motivation Part 7:Teacher Best Practices – The PBS Classroom Essentials Part 8: Behavior Support Teachers – A Professional Resource Part 9:Wrap-Up – Resources & Next Opportunities
A Note About Today’s Information All the information, accommodations, and strategies presented within the following presentation were gleaned from research-based materials. Every effort was made to reference all contributing primary sources.
Presentation Contributors The following individuals contributed to the development of today’s power point presentation: Natoshia Bartley Susan Baugher Stephanie Dodds Anne Fishburne Patricia Hill Cheryl Lambe Brian McCarthy Wendy Platt Debra Ulanet Danielle Weatherford
Part 1 – Positive Behavior Support: A Professional Discussion Beliefs, Principles, and Lessons Learned
We believe: We are your peers, not your superiors. We are not here to tell you what to do, or that what you are currently doing is wrong. Rather, we are here to facilitate a professional discussion about what works in your classrooms. None of us is as skilled as all of us!
In other words… We will be depending on you today to actively engage, share, question, and reflect on your teaching experiences, so as to not only validate and/or expand your own professional knowledge and repertoire of skills, but to support the development and/or enhancement of those of your colleagues as well.
A Teacher’s Revelation I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It’s my personal approach that creates the climate. It’s my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or dehumanized. - Haim Ginott Educator
A Teacher’s Warning If you don’t have a plan, your students will. - Norma Wright CVUSD Teaching Legend
A Teacher’s Insight It’s all so much more fun when you catch them doing a good job. - Chris Prokop Master Teacher
A Teacher’s Answer Little Brian McCarthy: Mom, why do you always hug your students when they leave your class each day? Elizabeth McCarthy, Kindergarten Teacher Emeritus: Because I love them.
A 5 Minute Discussion Turn to a colleague, and share with them why you chose to become a teacher. And when its time for us to come back as a group, our attention signal will be when I sing the first part of a Beatles’ song lyric, and when you finish it, all of your eyes will be on me.
An Educator’s Guess When you were asked a few moments ago to discuss with your colleagues why you became a professional educator, I bet you said something about loving to work with children. Now, don’t go confusing me with Nostradamus; for it can’t be the great pay, the fame, or your collection of coffee mugs that say, “A+ Teacher!”
An Educator’s Guess cont. No, you are a teacher today because you not only love kids, but believe you can make a positive difference in their lives. That is what today is all about: Engaging in a professional discussion about how to best generate positive interactions with our students.
An Educator’s Guess cont. Today, therefore, is one of those rare and wonderful moments in education when rational thought prevails, the pendulum swings back, and we again understand that a child’s education requires much more than a test score could ever describe.
Part 2: Why Are We Here? The Significant Disproportionality – Coordinated Early Intervening Services (SD-CEIS) Plan
The Issue Districts can be flagged by the federal and state government for over- and under-serving seven different student populations, under six of the thirteen Special Education disabilities. According to two federal and state calculation methods*, the CVUSD was determined to have been over-serving African-American students under the primary disability of Other Health Impairment (OHI). *Note: The CVUSD was informed in April 2013 that all of it’s disability student populations are currently within statistical compliance.
The Remedy By federal law, and enforced by the state, the CVUSD was required to allocate $500,000 for the development and implementation of a state approved SD-CEIS plan to address the over-serving of African-American students as OHI. A district can be over by 1 student or 101 students, the sanction is the same. There is no federal or state appeal process.
CVUSD Self-Study • The CVUSD conducted a required self-study that included individual and focus group interviews, as well as a review of student records, procedural manuals, and school board policies. • Overarching Theme: We are not deliberate about how we respond to various student behaviors. We need to develop ways to discuss and change how we interact with our culturally diverse student population. (Platt, 2013)
CVUSD Self-Study Findings Specifically: Due to a lack of cultural understanding, we are sometimes unsure whether an issue is behavioral or cultural. The Student Study Team (SST) and Special Education eligibility decision-making processes lack clarity and consistency. Because behavior is a gatekeeper to decision-making about students and student support, we need to make behavioral needs critical to academic and overall student success. (Platt, 2013)
Identified Focus Areas • Culturally Responsive School Environments (CRSE) • IDEA Policies and Procedures • Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)
The SD-CEIS Plan Because the classroom teacher is the professional primarily responsible for providing direct educational services to students, the focus of the Cajon Valley SD-CEIS plan is to directly provide teachers with professional development and support in the areas of CRSE, IDEA, and PBS. (Platt, 2013)
Part 3: What Can We Do? The Case for PBS
Introduction Schools today face a set of difficult challenges: • Multiple expectations (e.g. academic accomplishment, social competence, safety). • Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable. • Traditional, “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches have proven to be insufficient. To respond, schools must first ask questions; and at the top of the list is… (Horner, 2012)
What do we believe? Do we believe that responsible behavior is INNATE or LEARNED? Do we believe the child ISthe problem or the child HASa problem? Do we want to spend our time catching RULE BREAKERS or acknowledging RULE FOLLOWERS? Do we want to concentrate on PUNISHING bad student behavior or TEACHING, ENCOURAGING, and REINFORCING responsible student decision-making?
The Guiding Principles of Positive Behavior Support Because the classroom environment directly effects student learning, it should be organized in ways that prompt responsible student behavior. Because behavior is learned, just like any academic subject, teachers should be allowed to spend the instructional time necessary to directly and explicitly teach their students how to behave responsibly. More time should be spent acknowledging responsible student behavior than reacting to student misbehavior. When student misbehavior does occur, teachers should strive to respond in a brief, calm, and consistent manner.
How effective is PBS? • Does it reduce problem behavior? • Does it increase attendance and academic engagement? • Does it improve academic performance? • Does it reduce referrals to special education? • Does it improve family involvement in school? • Does it improve the perception of school as a “safe environment?” • Does it improve the perception of teacher efficacy? • Does it strengthen teacher connections to students? • Ultimately, will PBS benefit our students, staff, and families?
Experimental Research on PBS says: YES! • PBS Experimentally Related to: • Reduction in problem behavior • Increased academic performance • Increased attendance • Improved perception of safety • Improved organizational efficiency • Reduction in staff turnover • Increased perception of teacher efficacy (Horner, 2012) Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156
What are the core elements of PBS? • PBS is: • A framework for establishing the social culture and climateand the behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students. • Evidence-based features of PBS • Proactive and preventive • DEFINES and TEACHES positive social expectations • Rewards positive behavior • Establishes consistent and corrective consequences for problem behavior • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making • Continuum of intensive, individual accommodations and supports (Horner, 2012)
PBS Establishes a School’s Social Culture and Climate by Providing… A Common Language MEMBERSHIP A Common Experience A Common Vision (Horner, 2012)
School-Wide Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Intensive - Individual Targeted – Small Group Universal - School-wide Believes: The social cultureand climate of a school matters. Provides: A continuum of supports that begins with the universaland extends to targeted and intensive supports for students and their families. Requires: Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustain-ability within multiple tiersof intensity. (Horner, 2012)
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tier 3: Intensive Supports • Address individual needs of students • Assessment-based • High intensity • Tier 3: Intensive Supports • Address individual needs of students • Reduce complexity and severity • of behavior problems • Tier 2: Targeted Supports • Small, needs-based groups for • at-risk students • High efficiency • Rapid response • Tier 2: Targeted Supports • Small needs-based groups for • at-risk students • Behavior Support Teachers • Rapid response • Function-based logic • Tier 1: Universal Supports • All students • Classroom-based • Preventive, proactive • Core curriculum & differentiated • instruction • Tier 1: Universal Supports • All students • School-wide • Preventive, proactive • Core curriculum & • differentiated instruction 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% (Horner, 2012)
Tier 1 – Universal Level - All StudentsProactive - Likely to be sufficient for 85-90% of student body School-wide rules and expectations Classroom rules and expectations Reinforcement for positive behaviors Modeling of appropriate behavior Direct behavior instruction Lessons which promote active engagement and frequent checks for understanding Reinforcement for positive behaviors Mentors and/or peer buddies Self-monitoring techniques (Horner, 2012)
Tier 2 – Targeted Level – Some StudentsStrategies for At-risk Students - Likely to be sufficient for 7-10% of the student body Increased and/or intensified Tier 1 supports Support may be provided individually or in a small group Intensified social skills training Intensified self-management skills training Behavior Support Teachers Behavior Contracts Functional Behavior Support Plans Increased academic support (Horner, 2012)
Tier 3 – Intensive Level – Few StudentsIndividualized - Likely will be required for 3-5% of the student body – (Primarily Special Education students, and those students being assessed for Special Education) Increased/intensified Tier 1 & 2 supports Special Education Services Individualized Positive Behavior Support focuses on changing the environment and skill deficits that contribute to a student’s moderate to severe behavior issues. The primary tools employed in this process are the Functional Analysis Assessment which informs the Behavior Support/ Intervention Plans (BSP/BIP). (Horner, 2012)
Part 4: How Teachers Create Positive Classroom Environments Being STOIC
The Big Picture: Remain STOIC To Create a Positive Classroom Environment Structure your classroom for success. Teach students how to be successful in your classroom. Observe and supervise student behavior. Interact positively. Correct fluently. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC, really? Some people may think the word “stoic” implies a teacher who is cold and unfeeling. The Encarta World Dictionary, however, provides the definition, “tending to remain unemotional, especially showing admirable patience and endurance in the face of adversity.” Thus, a STOIC teacher is one who is unrattled by student misbehavior and who implements research-based strategies with patience and endurance. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC STRUCTURE your classroom for success. The way a classroom is organized has a huge impact on student behavior, and effective teachers thoughtfully structure their classrooms in ways that encourage responsible student decision-making. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC TEACH behavioral expectations to students. Effective teachers explicitly teach students how to behave responsibly and respectfully at school. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC OBSERVE and supervise. Effective teachers monitor student behavior by physically circulating whenever possible and visually scanning all parts of the classroom frequently. In addition, effective teachers use objective data to develop and implement appropriate accommodations and strategies for struggling students. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC INTERACT positively with students. When students are behaving responsibly, they should receive attention and specific descriptive feedback on their behavior. In other words, effective teachers focus more time, attention, and energy on acknowledging responsible behavior than correcting misbehavior. (Sprick, 2009)
STOIC CORRECT fluently. Effective teachers pre-plan their responses to misbehavior to ensure that they respond in a brief, calm, and consistent manner, thus increasing the chances that the flow of instruction is maintained. Further, teachers who think about the function of student misbehavior, are more often able to develop and implement accommodations and strategies that encourage students to behave appropriately. (Sprick, 2009)
What has been effective? Poster activity at your table: Please share and list examples of effective accommodations or strategies that you have effectively employed to decrease student problem behaviors.
Let’s take a short break. Please be back in 10 minutes.