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OCN 750 Class #13: April 15 Writing! PowerPoint Presentation
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OCN 750 Class #13: April 15 Writing!

OCN 750 Class #13: April 15 Writing!

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OCN 750 Class #13: April 15 Writing!

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  1. OCN 750 Class #13: April 15Writing! • Announcements • Return/Review Cover letters • Writing tips • Specific (nitty-gritty) - Barb • General (big picture) - Michele • Looking ahead

  2. Announcements & Check-Ins Other announcements? Michele? Pls. return if pau Tues 4/15 at 7pm Thurs 4/17 at 6:30 pm ENSO & Hawaii's Climate (Businger & Lance)

  3. Cover Letter: Format • Limit to 1-2 pages • Use standard business letter format • Make it easy to read • Can be mailed, emailed, uploaded (see job ad) • Save as a PDF, even if you’re mailing it • If submitting by email, include cover letter as attachment

  4. Standard Business Letter Format(modified block)

  5. Standard Business Letter Format(full block)

  6. Body of Cover Letter • First ParagraphExplain that you are applying for a job. Include position name, number and where you learned about the job. Convey your interest in the position. • Middle Paragraph(s)Describe what you have to offer the employer. Don’t simply restate what’s on your CV. Instead, show how your qualifications match those in the job ad. Make strong connections between your abilities and their needs, and back up your statements with evidence. Add a personal touch! Use several shorter paragraphs or bullets rather than one large block of text. • Final Paragraph Conclude your cover letter by expressing your interest in the position and thanking the employer for considering your application. http://jobsearch.about.com/lr/cover_letters/28157/2/

  7. Body of Cover Letter • First ParagraphExplain that you are applying for a job. Include position name, number and where you learned about the job. Convey your interest in the position. • Middle Paragraph(s)Describe what you have to offer the employer. Don’t simply restate what’s on your CV. Instead, show how your qualifications match those in the job ad. Make strong connections between your abilities and their needs, and back up your statements with evidence. Add a personal touch! Use several shorter paragraphs or bullets rather than one large block of text. • Final Paragraph Conclude your cover letter by expressing your interest in the position and thanking the employer for considering your application. http://jobsearch.about.com/lr/cover_letters/28157/2/

  8. BePositive • My academic background in ... will also facilitate my participation in research at your institution. (neutral) • My research has been largely focused on .... (something specific). Nevertheless, I have received very solid academic training in a range of science fields. (negative)

  9. http://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authorshttp://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authors Writing tips from famous authors

  10. Grammar and Writing Style (Review)

  11. Style Tips • Use clear, concise sentences • Avoid rambling/run-on sentences • Use shorter words • ‘use’, not ‘utilize’; ‘near’, not ‘in close proximity to’ • Avoid unnecessary jargon • If essential to use jargon, define clearly • Avoid empty words • ‘It is important to note …’; ‘Needless to say…’ • Avoid tautologies • ‘round in shape’; ‘actual fact’; ‘I saw it with my own eyes’

  12. Active vs. Passive Voice Active: Hard work produces good results. Passive: Good results are produced by hard work. General Rule: Use the active as much as possible.

  13. http://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authorshttp://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authors Writing tips from famous authors

  14. BeConcise:Avoid unnecessary words • I am writing this letter to apply for ... • My thesis research studies have been focused on … • Cruises aboard research vessels...... • My Master's degree and my PhD studies......

  15. BeConcise:Avoid Expletive Constructions • There are twenty-five people who are interested in …. Twenty-five people are interested in …. • It is probable that food prices will rise. Food prices will probably rise.

  16. BeConcise: Avoid unnecessary phrases • Citizens who knew what was going on voted for Smith. Knowledgeable citizens voted for Smith. • Low levels of ozone in the stratosphere have been linked to an outbreak in cancer of the skin in recent times. Low stratospheric ozone levels have been linked to a recent skin cancer outbreak. .

  17. Approaches to Writing • Outlining • Freewriting } complementary

  18. Freewriting Writing for several minutes • Without stopping • In sentences • In private - no reader • No structure needed

  19. http://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authorshttp://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/writing-advice-from-famous-authors Writing tips from famous authors

  20. Why Freewriting? • To find topics (and sub-topics) • As a warm-up for writing • To get into the writing habit • To develop confidence • To develop fluency • writing in different ways at different stages in the project

  21. Why Outline? • It is difficult to get the fine detail of a piece of writing right while maintaining the larger-scale flow of argument • The purpose of an outline is to separate out these two aspects of the writing task

  22. Put Title Here 1) 2) 3)

  23. Why SOEST should no longer offer OCN 750 1) Costs too much 2) Material not appropriate 3) Grad students can’t spare the time a) Cost to SOEST: $ ____ in instructor salaries b) Yet, most students aren’t in SOEST c) Students forced to spend $ on snacks 1) 2) 3) a) Grad students don’t need “professional development” b) Too hard for some; too easy for some c) It’s subversive (e.g., they discuss diversity) a) OCN 750 takes 2 hours/week + homework b) Plus they have to do a class project c) This time would be better spent on research

  24. Topic Sentence • Defines the content of a paragraph (usually first sentence, sometimes second) • Should understand content of piece of writing by reading topic sentence alone. • Paragraph structure: • Topic sentence • Supporting information/argument • Link to next paragraph

  25. Approaches to Writing • Outlining • Freewriting • Binging vs. Snacking? } complementary

  26. Break

  27. Approaches to Writing • Outlining • Freewriting • Binging vs. Snacking? } complementary

  28. Optional assignment due today • Planning timeline – for completion of your next paper (manuscript, thesis chapter, paper for a class) • All share – • What are you working on? • Which step(s) do you find most challenging?

  29. Writing can be a monumental task. If you wait for a big block of time (to “climb the mountain”): That time never comes The task becomes more intimidating Add a picture here Binging vs. Snacking

  30. How do you break this task into manageable steps? See class directory • Publish & Flourish – Tara Gray (12-step program) • Boice (studied habits of productive academics) • Brian Martin, “Doing Good Things Better” – edited by Rob Toonen for his PD class “Write before you’re ready!”

  31. 12 Steps –Tara GrayPublish & Flourish • Write daily for 15 – 30 minutes. • Record time spent writing daily & share records. • Write from the first day of your project. • Post your thesis on the wall, then write to it. • Organize around key sentences. • Use key sentences as an after-the-fact outline. • Share early drafts with non-experts. • Share later drafts with little-e experts and Capital-E Experts. • Learn how to listen. • Respond to each criticism. • Read your prose out loud. • Kick it out the door and make ‘em say “No.” Reactions?

  32. 3 Steps –Tara GrayPublish & Flourish • Write daily for 15 – 30 minutes. • Record time spent writing daily & share records. • Write from the first day of your project. • Post your thesis on the wall, then write to it. • Organize around key sentences. • Use key sentences as an after-the-fact outline. • Share early drafts with non-experts. • Share later drafts with little-e experts and Capital-E Experts. • Learn how to listen. • Respond to each criticism. • Read your prose out loud. • Kick it out the door and make ‘em say “No.”

  33. Write from the first day of your project – HOW? DO: • Write daily for 15-30 minutes • Start by writing new words • Report to a mentor or colleague AVOID: • Criticizing your writing as you go along = Freewriting

  34. Write from the first day of your project – WHAT? In which order would you write these sections? Introduction Methods Results text figures/tables Discussion

  35. Write from the first day of your project – WHAT? In which order would you write these sections? Introduction Methods Results text figures/tables Discussion Write along with your research. Writing = doing; = thinking; = creating a story; = assembling pieces; = typing rough text; = revising your ideas; etc etc etc = wordsmithing.

  36. Tip: Assemble your figures and tables (or ideas about them) into slides. • Addresses Gray’s steps: • Write from the first day of your project. • Organize around key sentences.

  37. Take-home message of your figure or table.(“Key Sentence” or “Topic Sentence”) On slide: • Figure caption • Other ways to show the data? • Plot differently • Analyze differently • Maybe this is a waste of your time. In text document: • 1 paragraph of methods (if not started already) • 1 paragraph of results Note: The “figure” can show actual data – or notes on your potential figure.

  38. Example Figures from Ch. 2,circa Sept 2011 Marine Ecology Progress Series Ms. No. 201401002 Title: Toxigenicity and biogeography of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia across distinct environmental regimes in the South Atlantic Ocean Very rough figures help you to: Document your methods as you go along Experiment with different stories Determine if you conducted the “right” analyses Write – using a foundation!

  39. Figure 3. continued. This is Diana’s most recent version of the SST-overlain plot, with more sensitive color-coding of SST. I like this color range, but the final version needs to be zoomed in so as to minimize inclusion of land mass … this will also allow more space in order to put regime codes on top of station locations. NOTE: Using SST as background may imply that temp is one of most important biogeographical drivers in this study. Instead, we could use chl as background instead, b/c regimes broadly group into coastal vs oligotrophic vs “transition” (and chl is a good marker of these regions). Brazil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Angola 12 13 14 15 16 17 18,19 20 21 Namibia 22 Final version: revised, as described above. 27,26,25,24,23

  40. Figure 1. Note: Station locations are just approximated on this figure for now. 15 16 17 18, 19 20 21 22 Final version: This work ended up just being described in the text. 27, 26, 25, 24, 23

  41. Figure 4. Also look at alternative version, with up to 100% on y axis (relative proportion of size fractions) > 10 µm 1.2 – 10 µm 0.7 - 1.2 µm Chlorophyll (µg/L) Final version: Included two panels of same data – absolute chl and relative Station

  42. Figure 9?? Canonical Correspondence Analysis: Axes 1 and 3 8 important OTUs: 135 149 153 161 195 219 221 225 Final version: What a mess. Ended up using a different analysis that was visualized more easily.

  43. 3 Steps –Tara GrayPublish & Flourish • Write daily for 15 – 30 minutes. • Record time spent writing daily & share records. • Write from the first day of your project. • Post your thesis on the wall, then write to it. • Organize around key sentences. • Use key sentences as an after-the-fact outline. • Share early drafts with non-experts. • Share later drafts with little-e experts and Capital-E Experts. • Learn how to listen. • Respond to each criticism. • Read your prose out loud. • Kick it out the door and make ‘em say “No.”

  44. Tip: Practice TALKING about your writing. • Give many talks – formal and informal. • Describe a key point to a friend or family member – then write down what you said. • Form a writing group – with colleagues outside your main focus.

  45. Tip: When minor binging is unavoidable, make it fun. Caffeine and peer pressure Pomodoro technique: 25 min per task 3-5 min break Self-care on longer breaks

  46. Writing: Learning Outcomes • Review common grammar & style points • Learn strategies for making writing manageable • Identify concrete steps you will take

  47. Writing Resources • ASM Scientific Writing & Publishing Institute • http://www.asmgap.org/index.php/presentation-slides-handouts-publishing-institute (2014 slides) • Strunk & White – Elements of Style • Gray – Write Daily (summary) • Martin – Doing Good Things Better (writing) • Toonen – Writing & Publishing More; How to Submit a Paper

  48. Next week (4/22) • Class Topic: Teaching Philosophy Workshop • Assignment Due: • Upload/update your online profile • Email the link to cmore@soest.hawaii.edu

  49. Your project presentations – 4/29, 5/6 • Audience – only classmates, or others? • Format – please aim for • Presentation: 12 min • Questions: 3 min • Please sign up -- • 4/29 – 5 presentations • 5/6 – 3 presentations • Your project reflection will be due on the day when you are not presenting.