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CSCI 1200 PowerPoint Presentation

CSCI 1200

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CSCI 1200

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  1. CSCI 1200 Microcomputer Applications Julie Benoit jbenoit@cs.dal.ca

  2. Announcements • Quiz today – computing history. • Lab 1 – email, login, meeting your TA.

  3. Types of Computers Supercomputer : • fastest computers. • specialized research and scientific applications. • Blue Mountain : 1.6 trillion operations per second.

  4. Types of Computers Mainframes : • timesharing. • terminal access. • banks, travel agents and insurance. • supercomputer - a few programs as fast as possible. • mainframe - many programs/users at once.

  5. Types of Computers • Workstations – high-end desktop. • Personal Computers – one user. • Portable Computers – one user on the go.

  6. Types of Computers Special-Purpose Computers : • programs etched in silicon so they can’t be altered. • often attached to sensors to measure and/or control the environment

  7. Types of Computers Embedded Computers : • enhance consumer goods • control a variety of hardware devices, including robots

  8. Types of Computers Servers : • provide software and other resources to computers over a network.

  9. Networks • connecting computers to share information and resources. • LANs and WANs. • Internet : network of networks.

  10. Internet • World Wide Web for usability • Electronic mail • Multimedia content • Self-publishing • On-line transactions

  11. Basic Components • Input • Output • Processor • Memory

  12. Basic Components • Input – keyboard & mouse. • Output – monitor & printer. • Processor – math & comparison. • Memory – hold data & instructions.

  13. Memory RAM – Random Access Memory : • usually what we mean. • memory accessed by the CPU. • current programs & data. • computer must be on.

  14. Memory Secondary Memory : • storage. • saving copies to secondary memory. • hard drive, CD, DVD, disk, tape, USB drive.

  15. Software Note : computers are useless without software. Software – the instructions that tell hardware what to do. ROM – Read Only Memory

  16. Bit • binary digit. • binary means 2 : 0 or 1. • computer circuits = switches. • switch on = 1, high, yes. • Switch off = 0, low, no.

  17. Byte • grouping of 8 bits. • 28 = 256. • 0 … 255. • bytes are grouped into words. • Computers operate on words.

  18. Bit Strings Represent • numbers. • alphanumeric : ASCII / Unicode. • instructions. • other stuff : sound or image data for example.

  19. Volume / Size / Capacity • Kilobyte (K) – thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB) – million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) – billion bytes. • Terabyte (TB) – trillion bytes. • Petabye (PB) – quadrillion bytes. Note : MB vs Mb

  20. CPU • Central Processing Unit. • converts input to output. • carries out instructions. • mathematical & logical operations. • communicates with other devices.

  21. CPU • motherboard : – circuit board. • location of the CPU. • Compatibility : • instruction sets • Performance / Speed : • clock speed, GHz.

  22. CPU Parts • ALU – arithmetic logic unit. • Bus – data travels in parallel. • Cache & Registers – high speed, local memory.

  23. Computer Speed • Instruction set • Word Size • Specialized hardware • Parallel processing • Clustering multiple machines • Memory

  24. Memory • main memory / RAM. • CPU reads main memory. • addressed cells (Random Access). • info held using electrical current: • need for ROM, CMOS, Flash & secondary memory.