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CSCI 1200 PowerPoint Presentation

CSCI 1200

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CSCI 1200

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  1. CSCI 1200 Introduction to Computing Julie Benoit jbenoit@cs.dal.ca

  2. Bit Strings Represent • numbers. • alphanumeric : ASCII / Unicode. • instructions. • other stuff : sound or image data for example.

  3. Volume / Size / Capacity • Kilobyte (K) – thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB)– million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) – billion bytes. • Terabyte (TB) – trillion bytes. • Petabye (PB) – quadrillion bytes. Note : MB vs Mb

  4. Volume / Size / Capacity • 1 K : text on back of DVD case. • 1 MB : 1.5 sec of DVD quality video. • 1 GB : a little less than 30 minutes of DVD quality video. • 1 TB : about 230 DVD movies. • 1 PB : about 238,600 DVD movies.

  5. CPU • Central Processing Unit. • converts input to output. • carries out instructions. • mathematical & logical operations. • communicates with other devices.

  6. CPU • motherboard : – circuit board. • location of the CPU. • Compatibility : • instruction sets • Performance / Speed : • clock speed, GHz.

  7. CPU Parts • ALU – arithmetic logic unit. • Bus – data travels in parallel. • Cache & Registers – high speed, local memory.

  8. Computer Speed • Instruction set • Word Size • Access Speeds • Specialized hardware • Parallel processing • Clustering multiple machines • Memory

  9. Memory • main memory / RAM. • CPU reads main memory. • addressed cells (Random Access). • info held using electrical current: • need for ROM, CMOS, Flash & secondary memory.

  10. Memory ROM : read only memory, non-volatile. CMOS : low energy, battery powered RAM, date & time. Flash : fast, only needs power to change, portable devices. Secondary memory : long term storage.

  11. Memory • main memory / RAM. • CPU reads main memory. • addressed cells (Random Access). • info held using electrical current: • need for ROM, CMOS, Flash & secondary memory.

  12. Storage • magnetic tapes • magnetic disks (floppy disks) • hard disks • optical disks (CD, DVD, Blu Ray) • solid state devices (memory sticks & cards, USB flash drives)

  13. Input Devices Keyboards : • Qwerty / Dvorak / Alphabetic • ergonomic • compact • membrane • one handed • folding

  14. Input Devices `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4% 5^ 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) [\{ ]} \\| '" ,< .> p y f g c r l /? += a o e u i d h t n s -_ ;: q j k x b m w v z

  15. Input Devices Pointing Device : • selecting from options / menus. • spatial tasks / graphics applications. • efficiency

  16. Input Devices : Pointing • Mouse : mechanical, light • Touch Pad : finger pressure • Track Ball : upside down mouse • Pointing Stick : TrackPoint, Isopoint • Joystick : and other gaming devices • Tablet & Stylus • Touch Screen

  17. Input Devices : Reading • Optical Mark Readers • Bar Code Readers • Magnetic Ink Character Readers • RFID Tags & Readers

  18. Input Devices : Reading • Optical Character Recognition • Handwriting recognition • Smart Whiteboard

  19. Input Devices : Digitizing • Scanner • Digital Camera • Video Digitizer • Digital Video Camera

  20. Output : Monitor • most familiar (VDT) • diagonally in inches • pixels, dpi, resolution • colour depth : number of colours that can be displayed at one time • video adaptor / video card • VRAM

  21. Output : Monitor • Liquid Crystal Display • Cathode Ray Tube

  22. Output : Printers • impact & non-impact • dot matrix printers & line printers • laser & ink jet • resolution • plotter • multi-function devices.

  23. Colours • light & pigment are different • Pigment : cyan, magenta, yellow & black • Light : red, green, blue

  24. Sound Output • sound card – accept a microphone, play sound through speakers & headphones. • all Macs & some PCs have on board sound. • synthesized speech, music, & sounds.

  25. Fax Machines / Fax Modems • phone lines • dots to create the image

  26. Combined Devices • some devices do both I/O. • peripherals interface with the world.

  27. Ports, Slots, Buses & Bays • port : connect a device. • Slot : place to insert a special piece of hardware. • Bus : group of wires connecting bays, ports and slots to the CPU. • Bay : open space in the box for a storage device.

  28. Standard Ports • serial port : one bit at a time, modem • parallel Port : groups of bits, printer • keyboard / mouse ports USB ports • faster, generic, multiple devices, various standards

  29. Special Ports • on expansion cards • video port for the monitor • microphone, speaker, MIDI for attaching sound equipment • network card adds a port to connect to the LAN