Chapter 1 The Golden Spike • Indian Removal: Indians were forced to move to reservations by the federal government so white settlers could have their land. • Land Hungry Settlers: wanted fertile land they could afford and adventure • Reservations: The places where the government moved the Indians after white settlers moved on their land. • Great Plains: States west of the Mississippi River; such as Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming
Golden Spike: the last spike that joined the Central and Union Pacific Railroads in Promontory Utah on May 10, 1869. • Immigrants: People who come into a country from another country. For the Railroad the immigrant workers were: Irish and Chinese • Union Pacific: The railroad that started in Nebraska and went west. • Central Pacific: The railroad that started in California and went east. • Prairie: Large area of flat or slightly rolling grasslands • Transcontinental: Railroad that goes across the country • Iron Horse: nickname for trains
Buffalo: The Indians called these animals KINDRED. They provided food, shelter and clothing for them. The number of buffalo’s in the U.S. went from millions to only a few hundred left. • European Americans: White people who settled the west. • Settlers: People who moved to the West to claim cheap land. • Populist: A political party who was also known as the People’s Party. It was made up of farmers. They fought for the common man or little guys.
Chapter 2 Women on the Plains: The Vanishing Frontier • Shanty: A roughly built cabin • Weather: Severe: blizzards, hail storms, draught, hot. • Dugout: Houses that were dug out of the side of hills and finished with sod bricks. Did not keep the weather out. • Soddies: A 4 wall house built from bricks made of mud and grass because there were no trees to make lumber from. Did not keep the weather out. • Dangers on the Plains: Hailstorms, blizzards, pests-such as grasshoppers. Weather a big factor.
Churned: a method used to make butter • Forested: Has a lot of trees • Homestead Act of 1862: This act gave land to anyone who would farm it for 5 years You get : 1) 160 acres of land, 2) you must stay on it and farm it for 5 years, 3) you must pay 18 dollar fee. • Prosperity: Means you are doing well.
Chapter 3: “I Will Fight No More Forever” • Chief Joseph: Chief of the Indian tribe NEZ PERCE. He called for peace. His way with words made him a national hero. • Nez Perce: Indian tribe that lived in Oregon’s Wallowa valley. This tribe successfully fought and won many battles with the U.S. Army. • Broken Promise: The U.S. Government broke many treaties with the Nez Perce over Wallowa Valley. • Stock piled: gathered together supplies. • White Bird Canyon: The Nez Perce fought the U.S. Army in White Bird Canyon.
The long retreat: The Nez Perce traveled 1,000 miles on foot to Canada to escape the U.S. Government. • Wounded Knee: The last major Indian massacre by white soldiers. • Reservations: Public land that was set aside for the Indians. The Indians had to go whether they wanted to or not. The land was not nice. • Defied: to dare to do something no matter what • General Howard: General in charge of the war against the Nez Perce friends with Chief Joseph, the guy who Joseph surrenders to. • Starvation: means no food, or famine • Inevitable: means is going to happen no matter what
Chapter 4: A Voice for the People • Farmers in trouble: New government policies on money caused the prices of crops to drop and costs of farming to go up. Farmers tried to use new machinery but had to go in debt. The prices go down and because of this they can’t pay their loans. • Peoples Party: Also known as : Populist- they wanted some control over big companies, was made up of farmers • Orator: means a forceful, charismatic speaker. • Inflation: The process where the prices of things and services go up
William Jennings Bryan: Ran for President against McKinley. Bryan was a famous orator for the common man • This political cartoon shows Bryan blowing up McKinley.
“Cross of Gold”: a famous speech by Bryan that said “Shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold” Bryan supported silver instead of gold, or small business vs. big business • Front Porch Campaign: McKinley had a “Front Porch Campaign” McKinley wanted the people to come to him instead of him going to the people. He was from Ohio, he beat Bryan. • “Little Guys” people who supported Bryan- the common man. • Big Business:McKinley is supported and supports big business. Bryan is against it.
Make an argument: The Leader of your Indian tribe passes around a treaty. The U.S. Government is making a deal. The Treaty States: “The government will buy your tribe’s land and give you another place to live. The Chief of your tribe asks you what you think. Knowing what you know about how Indians felt about life on the reservations and how they felt about leaving their homeland, answer your chief in a short essay in which you explain your feelings about being removed from your land, life on the reservation and treaties with the government in general. Yes, I would go because, No I would not go because. Must have at least 7 sentences.