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TYPES OF ROCK and THE ROCK CYCLE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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TYPES OF ROCK and THE ROCK CYCLE. IGNEOUS ROCK- formed when molten rock cools and solidifies. As the rock cools, minerals crystallize and grow. Extrusive igneous rock - cools quickly on the Earth ’ s surface (small crystals) Ex: Basalt, Obsidian

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TYPES OF ROCK and THE ROCK CYCLE


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    1. TYPES OF ROCK and THE ROCK CYCLE

    2. IGNEOUS ROCK-formed when molten rock cools and solidifies. As the rock cools, minerals crystallize and grow.

    3. Extrusive igneous rock- cools quickly on the Earth’s surface (small crystals) Ex: Basalt, Obsidian Air bubbles are sometimes trapped (pumice, scoria)

    4. Intrusive igneous rocks- cools slowly under the Earth’s surface (large crystals) Ex: granite, gabbro

    5. IGNEOUS ROCKS: volcanic rocks

    6. 2. SEDIMENTARY ROCK- formed from compressed or cemented layers of sediment *starts with rock being weathered (broken down) by wind/rain/ice *then the sediments move to lakes and seas and sink

    7. Layers form as larger sediments sink first and smaller sediments stay “suspended”

    8. Named based on the size of the fragments they contain: Conglomerate = pebbles Sandstone = sand Mudstone = mud (if it’s flaky it’s called shale) Limestone = made mostly of fossils and shells of sea creatures

    9. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: Sediments compacted and cemented

    10. 3. METAMORPHIC ROCK- rock that changes form under heat/pressure deep within the Earth * Heat and/or pressure is great over long amounts of time, but the rock does not melt. Limestone --------> Marble

    11. METAMORPHIC ROCKS: Changing under heat/pressure

    12. THE ROCK CYCLE: IT NEVER ENDS…