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  1. Palace of Versailles Clergy Controller-General Throne Manor Manor Manor Manor Teacher Desk

  2. Background Information • Who was King Louis XIV? • When did he reign over France? • What was the Palace of Versailles? • How did Louis XIV use the palace to increase his power?

  3. Palace of Versailles

  4. King Louis XVI

  5. Background Information • Who was King Louis XVI? • When did he reign over France? • Who was the Queen of France during Louis XVI’s reign?? • Where was she from?

  6. Pre-Revolutionary France End of 18th cent. France spent more $ than it made. Financial Crisis Took out Loans to pay for: war w/ England gov’t operations 1788 50% annual budget to pay loan interest 25% of annual budget to pay for military 6% of annual budget for king’s lifestyle and court at Versailles 19% of annual budget to run country Taxes King has no option but to raises taxes to cover costs Tax burden goes to peasants Clergy & Nobles mostly exempt from taxes Poor harvest hits as taxes increase caused price of bread to soar Meeting of Estates General Medieval representative body: hasn’t met since 1614 3 orders/Estates: Clergy, Nobility, Commoners King calls meeting to solve Financial Crisis

  7. The Estates General

  8. (Clergy) Controller-General Throne 1st Estate 2nd Estate (Nobles) 3rd Estate (Peasants)

  9. Step OneThe King assembles the Estates General for advice. • Please kneel in reverence for your King

  10. Step TwoThe 3 Estates prepare to meet 1) Decide to vote by head or by order 2) Draft proposal to solve financial crisis 3) Choose spokesperson to speak to King & Queen 4) Create banner with symbol to represent your Estate

  11. Step 3Propose Plans • Spokesperson approach throne, Kneel, and present proposal

  12. Step 4Kings Proposal • Listen silently and respectfully to your King

  13. Step 5Vote on King’s plan • Discuss King’s proposal and decide on a vote for or against the proposal • Cast vote by order

  14. News Flash!! • A severe famine has occurred. • Bread price have doubled. • Commoners are having extreme difficulty in obtaining food.

  15. The Revolution has Begun! • “I swear an oath to God and nation never to be separated until we have formed a solid and equitable Constitution as our constituents have asked us to.”

  16. The Tennis Court Oath

  17. Tennis Court Oath Estates were not allowed to vote by head 3rd Estate declares itself to be National Assembly June 19, 1789 clergy joins Nat’l Assembly Nat’l Assembly established Constitutional Monarchy AND seized all church lands to solve financial crisis Start of the French Revolution

  18. Storming of the Bastille

  19. Tennis Court Oath Storming the Bastille Estates were not allowed to vote by head 3rd Estate declares itself to be National Assembly June 19, 1789 clergy joins Nat’l Assembly Nat’l Assembly established Constitutional Monarchy AND seized all church lands to help solve $ crisis July 1789 - 25% of people unemployed Bread $ is high, so not much food Rumors spread of King’s troops coming to crush the National Assembly July 14 100’s of people storm Bastille (Prison & Fort) to get gunpowder to defend against troops Guards fire on crowd, kill 98 Marks start of Revolution Start of the French Revolution

  20. The March on Versailles

  21. The March on Versailles Unemployment and hunger continue to increase following the Bastille October 5, 1789 - 7,000 desperate women marched 12 miles to Versailles to demand bread Women invade Palace & kill Guards & some Nobles Women clear out King’s storehouse of flour King Louis XVI & Family forced to escort women back to Paris Women carried head of 2 nobles on pikes King & family never returned to Versailles (Notes Continued)

  22. The French Revolution Stage 3

  23. Controller-General Throne National Assembly

  24. Step One: King Louis XVI Recognizes the National Assembly • Listen to your King in respectful silence

  25. Step Two: Controller-General Describes Financial Crisis • Listen carefully and quietly

  26. Step 3: National Assembly Discusses & Proposes Solutions • Discuss ways to raise money to save France • Present proposals to the king & queen • National Assembly votes on proposal • King approves/vetoes proposal

  27. Step Four: New Proposal • Listen carefully to the new proposal

  28. Step five: National Assembly Puts King on Trial • Who will speak on King’s behalf? • Cast your vote

  29. Step Six: The Republic of Virtue • Work to write a new constitution to save France from ruin

  30. The Reign of Terror Ends • Robespierre and his followers led this stage of the revolution for almost two years. During that time, France successfully defended itself against invading European armies. However, approximately 40,000 French men and women were executed for “treason”. Treasonous acts included saying, “Down with the Republic” and possessing a book with the king’s seal on it. • Given these facts, what do you want to do to Robespierre?

  31. Execution of King Louis XVI June 21, 1791 Royal family was caught trying to escape France - forced to return to Paris King signed new constitution, but vetoed all revolutionary decrees The Reign of Terror

  32. Terror Sept. 1792 a more radical gov’t elected - The National Convention November-Royal Documents found incriminating King of treason January 1793 - King Louis convicted of treason & sentenced to death Marks beginning of Reign of Terror led by Maximilien Robespierre & Committee of Public Safety The Reign of Terror Continued

  33. War with Europe French fighting “war of people against kings” with Euro armies 1794 French patriotic armies wipe out the Euro armies on all fronts The Reign of Terror Continued

  34. National Convention Any French citizen deemed “not virtuous” enough for the Republic was in danger of execution By July 1794 over 40,000 men & women were executed on the Guillotine Finally, Robespierre himself was executed. The terror came to an end The Reign of Terror Continued

  35. Napoleon Bonaparte After the end of the terror, a 5 man executive, called the Directory, ruled badly for 5 years Napoleon became First Consul & then Emperor of France (1799-1814) Turned France into police-state - freedoms were violated He abolished feudal system & encouraged social movement Created French Empire before abdicating (quitting) in 1814 The Reign of Terror Continued