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Tuesday November 2, 2010 PowerPoint Presentation
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Tuesday November 2, 2010

Tuesday November 2, 2010

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Tuesday November 2, 2010

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  1. TuesdayNovember 2, 2010 • (Types of Plate Boundaries)

  2. The Launch Pad Tuesday, 11/2/10 In 1915, Alfred Wegener first proposed the continental drift hypothesis, which states that a supercontinent called Pangaea began breaking apart about 200 million years ago. He said that the continents “drifted” to their present positions. List 5 pieces of evidence cited by Wegener that supported his hypothesis. • the fit of South America and Africa • fossils match across the seas • rock types and structures match across the seas • similar mountain ranges on different continents • similar ancient climates evidence matches on present-day continents

  3. Announcements If your need to: • come in and do missing work, • remediate assessments, or • get tutoring, please sign up in the log book. We will have a test this Friday.

  4. Plate Boundaries Plate boundaries occur where two crustal plates meet. There are three types of plate boundaries: • Divergent plate boundaries (constructive margins) occur where two plates move apart. • Convergent plate boundaries (destructive margins) occur where two plates collide. • Transform fault boundaries occur where plates slide past one another

  5. Divergent Plate Boundaries Divergent plate boundaries (constructive margins) occur where two plates move apart. The mantle material up-wells to create new seafloor. Oceanic ridges develop along well-developed boundaries. Along ridges, seafloor spreading creates new seafloor.

  6. Divergent boundaries are located along oceanic ridges. Figure 7.11

  7. Distribution of the Oceanic Ridge System

  8. Figure 7.10 (left)

  9. The East African rift is a divergent boundary on land • Continental rifts form at spreading centers within a continent. Figure 7.13

  10. Figure 7.13 (top right)

  11. Continental rifting

  12. Convergent Plate Boundaries Convergent plate boundaries (destructive margins) occur when plates collide, an ocean trench forms, and lithosphere is subducted into the mantle.

  13. Convergent Plate Boundaries Oceanic - continental convergence occurs when a denser oceanic slab sinks into the asthenosphere. Pockets of magma develop and rise and a continental volcanic arc forms.

  14. An Oceanic - Continental Convergent Plate Boundary Figure 7.15 A

  15. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – continental convergence include: the Andes Mountains of South America.

  16. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – continental convergence include: the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon.

  17. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – continental convergence include: the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  18. Convergent Plate Boundaries Oceanic - oceanic convergence occurs when two oceanic slabs converge and one descends beneath the other. This often forms volcanoes on the ocean floor. A volcanic island arc forms as volcanoes emerge from the sea.

  19. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – oceanic convergence include: • the Aleutian Islands.

  20. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – oceanic convergence include: • the Mariana Islands.

  21. Convergent Plate Boundaries Examples of oceanic – oceanic convergence include: • the Tonga Islands.

  22. Convergent Plate Boundaries Continental - Continental Convergence When two continental plates converge, they collide. One continental plate subducts under the other. This can produce buckling of the upper plate and new mountain ranges form, such as the Himalayas

  23. The Collision of India and Asia Produced the Himalayas

  24. Transform Plate Boundaries Transform plates slide past one another. No new crust is created or destroyed. Transform faults are created. Most transform faults join two segments of a mid-ocean ridge. These faults and ridges aid the movement of oceanic crustal material.

  25. California’s Fault Issue

  26. GEODe Earth Science Plate Tectonics Slides 726-754 (P5)