Chapter 8 Progressivism
Chapter Introduction • Section 1: The Drive for Reform • Section 2: Women Make Progress • Section 3: The Struggle Against Discrimination • Section 4: Roosevelt’s Square Deal • Section 5: Wilson’s New Freedom
Objectives • Identify the causes of Progressivism and compare it to Populism. • Analyze the role that journalists played in the Progressive Movement. • Evaluate some of the social reforms that Progressives tackled. • Explain what Progressives hoped to achieve through political reforms.
Daily question What areas did Progressives think were in need of the greatest reform?
Progressivism was a movement that believed the social challenges caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration in the 1890s and 1900s could be addressed. Progressives believed that honest and efficient government could bring about social justice.
Did You Know? Photographer Lewis Hine used his photographs to record social conditions and make them known to Americans. He made a large photographic study of immigrants and their lives in tenements and sweatshops in New York City. He also photographed children working under deplorable working conditions in factories, mills, and mines. His photographs of and comments by the children shocked the nation and greatly helped the reform movement to end child labor.
The era in American history from about 1890 to 1920 is known as the Progressive Era. Progressivism was a collection of different ideas and activities about how to fix the problems within American society. Progressives disagreed among themselves on the solutions, but agreed that the government should take a more active role in solving society's problems caused by urbanization and industrialization.
Progressives believed that first the government needed to be fixed and made more responsive to people before other problems could be addressed. Progressives also believed that they could fix society's problems by applying scientific principles to society.
believed industrialization and urbanization had created social and political problems. • were mainly from the emerging middle class. • wanted to reform by using logic and reason. Progressives were reformers who:
Progressives targeted a varietyof issues and problems. • corrupt politicalmachines • trusts andmonopolies • inequities • safety • city services • women’s suffrage
The muckrakers were a group of journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption. Their articles led to public debate on social and economic problems and put pressure on politicians to introduce reforms.
Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities John SpargoThe Bitter Cry of the Children Ida TarbellThe History of Standard Oil
Jacob Riis exposed the deplorable conditions poor people were forced to live under in How the Other Half Lives.
The naturalist novel portrayed the struggle of common people. Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, provided a shocking look at meatpacking in Chicago’s stockyards.
Theodore Dreiser’s, Sister Carrie,discussed factory conditions for working women. • Francis Ellen Watkins’s, Iola Leroy, focused on racial issues. • Frank Norris’s, The Octopus,centered on the tensions between farmers and the railroads. Progressive novelists covered a wide range of topics.
Social welfare progressives created charities to help the poor and disadvantaged, and pushed for laws to help fix social problems. • In 1900 over 1.7 million children under the age of 16 worked outside the home. The National Child Labor Committee worked to end child labor.
Progressives succeeded in reducing child labor and improving school enrollment. The United States Children’s Bureau was created in 1912.
Many adult workers labored in difficult and dangerous conditions. With the creation of building codes, workers' compensation laws, zoning laws, and health codes, the work environment was made safer for workers. • Some progressives favored zoning laws and building codes to regulate how the land and buildings could be used.
In the 1900s, the U.S. had the world’s worst rate of industrial accidents. In 1911, 156 workers died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Many young womenjumped to their deathsor burned. Worker safety was an important issue for Progressives.
One group of progressives believed that problems in society could be solved if government was efficient. They felt that government could become efficient by applying the principles of scientific management. • They thought that managing a city required experts, not elected politicians. They wanted to replace the existing system with a commission plan where a board of commissioners or a city manager with expertise in city services would select and hire specialists to run city departments.
In 1901 Galveston, Texas, was the first to adopt the commission system. Many cities followed shortly after.
Many progressives wanted more democracy in society. The governor of Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, criticized how political parties ran their conventions. He pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary, a party election in which all party members vote for a candidate to run in the general election.
Three new reforms were introduced by progressives to force state legislators to respond to voter's concerns. The initiative allowed a group of citizens to introduce legislation and required the legislature to vote on it. • The referendum allowed proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for approval. • The recall allowed voters to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office.
Progressive governors achieved state-level reforms of the railroads and taxes. Two Progressive Governors, Theodore Roosevelt of New York and Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, would become Progressive Presidents. On the national level, in 1913, Progressiveshelped pass the 17th Amendment, providing for the direct election of United States Senators.
Section 2 Objectives • Analyze the impact of changes in women’s education on women’s roles in society. • Explain what women did to win workers’ rights and to improve family life. • Evaluate the tactics women used to win passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.
By the early 1900s, a growing number of middle-class women wanted to do more than stay at home as wives and mothers. Colleges like Pennsylvania’s Bryn Mawr and New York’s School of Social Work armed middle-class women with education and modern ideas. However, most poor women continued to labor long hours, often under dangerous or dirty conditions.
They worked long hours in factories and sweatshops, or as maids, laundresses or servants. • They were paid less and often didn’t get to keep their wages. • They were intimidated and bullied by employers. Progressive reforms addressed working women’s conditions:
Reformers saw limiting the length of a woman’s work day as an important goal and succeeded in several states. In Muller v.Oregon, theSupreme Court ruled that states could legally limit a women’s work day. This ruling recognized the unique role of women as mothers.
In 1899, Florence Kelley founded the Women’s Trade Union League which worked for a federal minimum wage and a national eight-hour workday. The WTUL also created the first workers’ strike fund, which helped support families who refused to work in unsafe or unfair conditions.
Progressives supported the temperance movement. They felt that alcohol often led men to spend their earnings on liquor, neglect their families, and abuse their wives. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union grew steadily until the passage of the 18th Amendment which banned the sale and production of alcohol in 1919.
In 1916, Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic. She believed that having fewer children would lead to healthier women. In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League to make information available to women. She was jailed. The courts eventually ruled that doctors could give out family planning information.
Daily question • How did women of the Progressive Era make progress and win the right to vote?
African Americans also worked for women’s rights. • Ida B. Wells founded the National Association of Colored Women or NACW in 1896. • The NACWsupported day care centers for the children of working parents. • Wells also worked for suffrage, to end lynchings, and to stop segregation in the Chicago schools.
In the early 1900s, many women were no longer content playing a limited role in society. Activists helped bring about Progressive reforms including women’s suffrage. • Women would continue the struggle to expand their roles and rights in the future.
The movement for women's voting rights was known as the suffrage movement. Suffrage is the right to vote. In July 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the first women's rights convention. Many progressives joined the suffrage movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Ultimately suffrage was seen as the only way to ensure that government protected children, fostered education, and supported family life. Since the 1860s, Susan B. Anthonyand Elizabeth Cady Stantonworked relentlessly for women’s suffrage.Still, by the 1890s, only Wyomingand Colorado allowed women to vote. Susan B. Anthony
In 1917, social activists led by Alice Paul formed the National Woman’s Party. Their radical actions made the suffrage movement’s goals seem lessdramatic by comparison. The NWP picketed the White House. Hundreds of suffragettes were arrested and jailed.
President of the National American Suffrage Association, Carrie Chapman Catt, promoted a two-part strategy to gain the vote for women. • 1 • NAWSA lobbied Congress for a constitutional amendment. • Supporters, called suffragettes, used the referendum process to pass state laws. • 2
The National Association Opposed to Woman’s Suffrage feared voting would distract women from their family roles. Many men and women were offended by Paul’s protests in front of the White House. A mob shredded her signs and pickets. Not all women supported suffrage.
In June 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress. The amendment stated that the vote “shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex.” In November 1920, women nationwide voted in a presidential election for the first time.
Daily question • What kind of group were the Progressives? • (The progressives were a group with widely different views and ideas about how to fix society's problems. They often disagreed with each other over the issues. They belonged to both political parties and were usually urban, educated middleclass Americans)
8-3 Objectives • Analyze Progressives’ attitudes toward minority rights. • Explain why African Americans organized. • Examine the strategies used by members of other minority groups to defend their rights.
What steps did minorities take to combat social problems and discrimination? Prejudice and discrimination continued even during the Progressive era. Minorities, including African Americans, Latinos, Catholics, Jews, and Native Americans, worked to help themselves. Their efforts paved the way for the era of civil rights several decades later.
Most Progressives were white, middle-class Protestants who held the racial and ethnic prejudices common in that era. They envisioned a model America based on Protestant ethics and a white middle-class lifestyle. As a result, they were often hostile to minority or immigrant cultures.
Progressives believed assimilation would turn immigrants into loyal and moral citizens. • The results were well-intentioned, but often insensitive or racist efforts to change the immigrants. • While teaching English they also advised immigrants to replace their customs with middle-class practices and Protestant values. • Settlement houses and other civic groups played a prominent role in Americanization efforts.
Progressives saw many immigrant customs as moral failures. This prejudice against immigrant customs and culture gave strength to the temperance movement. Immigrant use of alcohol, such as the serving of wine with meals, alarmed some people.
Racial theories were also used to justify laws that kept blacks from voting. Many Progressives supported racial prejudices. • The Plessy v. Ferguson decision furthered discrimination in the North as well as the South. • By 1910, segregation was the norm nationwide. • In 1914, even federal offices were segregated by Progressive President Woodrow Wilson.
African Americans were split over how to end racial discrimination. Booker T. Washingtonurged a patient, gradual effort based on earning equality through training and work in the skilled trades. W.E.B. DuBoisdemanded that African Americans receive all constitutional rights immediately.
In 1905, DuBois and William Monroe Trotter were concerned that all across the South, black men could not vote. • Their Niagara Movement rejected the gradualist approach stating that trade skills “create workers, but cannot make men.” • They also believed African Americans should learn how to think for themselves through the study of history, literature, and philosophy.