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Building the Land

Building the Land. Disappointed and Shocked. Second Aliya from Russia arrived in Jaffa Dirty streets, beggars, broken down buildings Backbreaking work farming, hunger malaria, poverty 9 out of 10 Halutzim left Some died. David Ben Gurion . Arrives in Jaffa 1906 – run down and dirty

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Building the Land

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  1. Building the Land

  2. Disappointed and Shocked • Second Aliya from Russia arrived in Jaffa • Dirty streets, beggars, broken down buildings • Backbreaking work farming, hunger malaria, poverty • 9 out of 10 Halutzim left • Some died

  3. David Ben Gurion • Arrives in Jaffa 1906 – run down and dirty • Keeps walking to Petach Tikva • Starts farming

  4. Second Aliya • First Aliya – Bilu 1882 to 1903 • Second Aliya began in 1904 – severe pogroms • Key ideas and ideals: Building a Jewish labor force No longer paid Arabs Connected them to land

  5. Working the Land • Soil poor – down to bare rock • Streams were marshes • Malaria – many died • Drained the swamps • Built roads • Planted trees • Worked all the time

  6. Collective Farm • Everyone shares equally governing community doing the work sharing the benefits • Experiment at first took on failing farm successfully farmed it • Other groups started • Degania 1911 in Galilee

  7. Kvutsa, Kibbutz, Moshav • Kvutza – farm where everyone shares planning, work profits • Kibbutz – larger collective settlement • Moshav – farmers lease own land but share machinery and supplies

  8. Defense • Needed to defend settlements from attack • No Jewish armed force for 1800 years • 10 Jewish men had to prove themselves • Stole a mule to show that Jewish guards could do job

  9. Hashomer 1909 • Organized defense under Israel Shohat • Like a posse of cowboys • Wore Arab dress as a sign of friendship • Attacks met with force • Remained a small force • Ben Gurion rejected • Created basis for army

  10. Language for a Nation • Second Aliya made Hebrew their language • Most immigrants spoke Russian or Yiddish • Hebrew only for prayer • No modern words in Hebrew – like radio • Eliezer Ben Yehuda – modern Hebrew

  11. Eliezer Ben Yehuda • Came in 1881 • Individual with idea • Believed Hebrew only language homeland • Spoke only Hebrew • Shunned, starving, children isolated • Compiled dictionary

  12. Victory for Hebrew • Schools began teaching Hebrew • Second Aliya supported idea – with fervor • Key battle – German group – founded technical school • Students went on strike till Hebrew used

  13. Hebrew Saved Modern Israel • Later Israel flooded with immigrants with many languages • Hebrew united the people • We owe much to the pioneers who sacrificed to build the land and the nation into modern Israel

  14. The Yishuv • Created the basis for a nation-state • 1948 UN grants Jews homeland • Need the infrastructure which the Yishuv built • Farms, defense system, government, roads, economy, education, people who live there, language

  15. World War 1 in the Middle East

  16. Ottoman Empire 1914

  17. WW1 Begins • World War 1 - triggered when Austrian prince assassinated • Lasted longer than people thought • Britain France Russia against • Germany Austria Turkey

  18. Caught in the Middle • Jews of Palestine hurt no matter who won • Yishuv depended on food from West Europe • War stopped aid • Thousands starved to death • Population went from 85,000 in 1914 to fewer than 55,000 after war

  19. At First Supported Turkey • Turks ruled Jews • Turks fighting Czar whom Russian Jews hated • Turkish Sultan didn’t trust them. Thought they supported Russian cause. • Exiled Jews who offered to fight – forever • Ben Gurion was exiled

  20. Now Fighting Against Turks • Two men lead the fight Vladimir Jabotinsky Josef Trumpeldor • Both Russian born 1880 • Both loyal Russians – a brilliant writer and a dentist who fought for Russians with great distinction (1st officer)

  21. Trumpeldor and Jabotinsky • Pogroms lead Trumpeldor to make aliya – then kicked out by Turks • Met Jabotinsky in Egypt who was promoting Zionism • Wanted to create Jewish Legion to fight Turks

  22. The Zion Mule Corps • Wanted to send Jewish soldiers into Palestine • British accepted help but only in Turkey and only as mule drivers transporting ammunition • Trumpeldor accepted • Began Zion Mule Corps with 500 Jews in 1915 • Brought supplies to front lines – dangerous • First Jewish soldiers in modern times

  23. Zionism in England – Chaim Weizmann • Chaim Weizmann leading Zionist in world • Partook in congresses • Opposed to Uganda • Research chemist in England • Met Lord Balfour, British statesman • Convinced Balfour to become a Zionist

  24. Weizmann Solves War Problem • British need acetone to make ammunition • Germany used to supply them • Weizmann produced acetone from corn • Saved the day • Gained much influence, met powerful people

  25. Suez Canal – hugely strategic • Turks attacked canal twice – lost both times • British very worried • Decided that strong Jewish settlement in Palestine the answer • Weizmann and others encouraged this idea

  26. The Balfour Declaration • British government announced support for Jewish homeland • Wealthy English Jews opposed this!!! • Afraid they would lose their status and grip • US president Woodrow Wilson cabled support • Tipping point

  27. Lord Balfour’s Promise “His majesties government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” France, Italy and the US agreed with Britain

  28. Reaction to Balfour Declaration • The most powerful nations in the world approved of a “Jewish homeland in Palestine” • West European, US and Russian Jews rejoiced • Yishuv terrified – would the Turks turn on them? • But a year later everything changed (1918)

  29. The End of the Ottoman Empire • Jabotinsky able to form a Jewish Legion in Palestine • Volunteers from all over including Ben Gurion in US • British attack Palestine under General Allenby • Liberated Jerusalem from the Turks on Channuka 1917 • Hard winter (Turkish attacks) • By September 1918 Turks defeated

  30. Results of WW1 • Jewish population in Palestine 1/3 smaller • Deaths – starvation, illness, exposure • Jews proved they could be good warriors • Great Britain and Us supported Zionist goal

  31. Map of Middle East after WW1

  32. Jews and Arabs • Jews and Arabs – united against Turkish rule • Weizmann met Emir Feisal (Arab leader) • Agreed there was room for both peoples • Later found that Feisal had overpromised – not all Arabs thought so

  33. Words of Welcome “We Arabs look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement…..We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home.” Emir Feisal

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