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Building the Land

Building the Land. Zionism. An organized, political nationalist movement In keeping with the time Rejected by most Jews Religious Jews, Socialist Jews, secular assimilated Jews all reject Remains very much a minority movement mainly from Eastern Europe for many decades – till end of WW11.

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Building the Land

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  1. Building the Land

  2. Zionism • An organized, political nationalist movement • In keeping with the time • Rejected by most Jews • Religious Jews, Socialist Jews, secular assimilated Jews all reject • Remains very much a minority movement mainly from Eastern Europe for many decades – till end of WW11

  3. Disappointed and Shocked • Second Aliya from Russia arrived in Jaffa • Dirty streets, beggars, broken down buildings • Backbreaking work farming, hunger malaria, poverty • 9 out of 10 Halutzim left • Some died

  4. David Ben Gurion • Arrives in Jaffa 1906 – run down and dirty • Keeps walking to Petach Tikva • Starts farming

  5. Second Aliya • First Aliya – Bilu 1882 to 1903 • Second Aliya began in 1904 – severe pogroms • Key ideas and ideals: Building a Jewish labor force No longer paid Arabs Connected them to land

  6. Working the Land • Soil poor – down to bare rock • Streams were marshes • Malaria – many died • Drained the swamps • Built roads • Planted trees • Worked all the time

  7. Collective Farm • Everyone shares equally governing community doing the work sharing the benefits • Experiment at first took on failing farm successfully farmed it • Other groups started • Degania 1911 in Galilee

  8. Kvutsa, Kibbutz, Moshav • Kvutza – farm where everyone shares planning, work profits • Kibbutz – larger collective settlement • Moshav – farmers lease own land but share machinery and supplies

  9. Defense • Needed to defend settlements from attack • No Jewish armed force for 1800 years • 10 Jewish men had to prove themselves • Stole a mule to show that Jewish guards could do job

  10. Hashomer 1909 • Organized defense under Israel Shohat • Like a posse of cowboys • Wore Arab dress as a sign of friendship • Attacks met with force • Remained a small force • Ben Gurion rejected • Created basis for army

  11. Language for a Nation • Second Aliya made Hebrew their language • Most immigrants spoke Russian or Yiddish • Hebrew only for prayer • No modern words in Hebrew – like radio • Eliezer Ben Yehuda – modern Hebrew

  12. Eliezer Ben Yehuda • Came in 1881 • Individual with idea • Believed Hebrew only language homeland • Spoke only Hebrew • Shunned, starving, children isolated • Compiled dictionary

  13. Victory for Hebrew • Schools began teaching Hebrew • Second Aliya supported idea – with fervor • Key battle – German group – founded technical school • Students went on strike till Hebrew used

  14. Hebrew Saved Modern Israel • Later Israel flooded with immigrants with many languages • Hebrew united the people • We owe much to the pioneers who sacrificed to build the land and the nation into modern Israel

  15. The Yishuv • Created the basis for a nation-state • 1948 UN grants Jews homeland • Need the infrastructure which the Yishuv built • Farms, defense system, government, roads, economy, education, people who live there, language

  16. World War 1 in the Middle East

  17. Ottoman Empire 1914

  18. WW1 Begins • World War 1 - triggered when Austrian prince assassinated • Lasted longer than people thought • Britain France Russia against • Germany Austria Turkey

  19. Caught in the Middle • Jews of Palestine hurt no matter who won • Yishuv depended on food from West Europe • War stopped aid • Thousands starved to death • Population went from 85,000 in 1914 to fewer than 55,000 after war

  20. At First Supported Turkey • Turks ruled Jews • Turks fighting Czar whom Russian Jews hated • Turkish Sultan didn’t trust them. Thought they supported Russian cause. • Exiled Jews who offered to fight – forever • Ben Gurion was exiled

  21. Now Fighting Against Turks • Two men lead the fight Vladimir Jabotinsky Josef Trumpeldor • Both Russian born 1880 • Both loyal Russians – a brilliant writer and a dentist who fought for Russians with great distinction (1st officer)

  22. Trumpeldor and Jabotinsky • Pogroms lead Trumpeldor to make aliya – then kicked out by Turks • Met Jabotinsky in Egypt who was promoting Zionism • Wanted to create Jewish Legion to fight Turks

  23. The Zion Mule Corps • Wanted to send Jewish soldiers into Palestine • British accepted help but only in Turkey and only as mule drivers transporting ammunition • Trumpeldor accepted • Began Zion Mule Corps with 500 Jews in 1915 • Brought supplies to front lines – dangerous • First Jewish soldiers in modern times

  24. Zionism in England – Chaim Weizmann • Chaim Weizmann leading Zionist in world • Partook in congresses • Opposed to Uganda • Research chemist in England • Met Lord Balfour, British statesman • Convinced Balfour to become a Zionist

  25. Weizmann Solves War Problem • British need acetone to make ammunition • Germany used to supply them • Weizmann produced acetone from corn • Saved the day • Gained much influence, met powerful people

  26. Suez Canal – hugely strategic • Turks attacked canal twice – lost both times • British very worried • Decided that strong Jewish settlement in Palestine the answer • Weizmann and others encouraged this idea

  27. The Balfour Declaration • British government announced support for Jewish homeland • Wealthy English Jews opposed this! • Afraid they would lose their status and grip • US president Woodrow Wilson cabled support • Tipping point

  28. Lord Balfour’s Promise “His majesties government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” France, Italy and the US agreed with Britain

  29. Reaction to Balfour Declaration • The most powerful nations in the world approved of a “Jewish homeland in Palestine” • West European, US and Russian Jews rejoiced • Yishuv terrified – would the Turks turn on them? • But a year later everything changed (1918)

  30. The End of the Ottoman Empire • Jabotinsky able to form a Jewish Legion in Palestine • Volunteers from all over including Ben Gurion in US • British attack Palestine under General Allenby • Liberated Jerusalem from the Turks on Channuka 1917 • Hard winter (Turkish attacks) • By September 1918 Turks defeated

  31. Results of WW1 • Jewish population in Palestine 1/3 smaller • Deaths – starvation, illness, exposure • Jews proved they could be good warriors • Great Britain and Us supported Zionist goal

  32. Map of Middle East after WW1

  33. Jews and Arabs • Jews and Arabs – united against Turkish rule • Weizmann met Emir Feisal (Arab leader) • Agreed there was room for both peoples • Later found that Feisal had overpromised – not all Arabs thought so

  34. Words of Welcome “We Arabs look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement…..We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home.” Emir Feisal

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