Journey Across the Lifespan Theories of Growth and Development Text source:: Journey Across the Life Span: Health Development and Health Promotion Elaine Polan and Daphne Taylor
Growth and Development • Growth refers to an increase in physical size • Quantitative…measured in inches, centimeters, pounds, etc. • Development refers to the progressive acquisition of skills
Growth and Development • Both can occur at the same time and interdependent. • What does interdependent mean related to growth and development?
Development • Comes about through learned behavior • Comes about through maturation • Maturation : attainment of full development
Growth and Development Assumptions Assumption 1 Growth and development occur in an orderly pattern from simple to complex, one task must be accomplished before the next one can is attempted. Give an example….
Growth and Development Assumptions • Assumption # 2 • Growth and development are continuous processes characterized by spurts of growth and periods of slow, steady growth. • What are times of growth spurts?
Growth and Development Assumptions • Assumption # 3 • Growth and development progress at highly individualized rates that vary from growth timetables, and one child’s growth pattern should not be compared to another
Growth and Development Assumptions • Assumption #4 • Growth and development affect all body systems but at different times for specific structures. Although many organs mature and develop throughout childhood, the reproductive organs mature at adolescence.
Growth and Development Assumptions • Assumption #5 • Growth and development form a total process that affects a person physically, mentally and socially.
Personality • What is the definition of personality? • What influences personality? • Why is it important to understand personality as a health care professional?
Psycho-analytical Theory • Think Sigmund Freud! • Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise.Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud • Freud lays the ground work for all other personality theories • 3 parts of his theory include levels of awareness, components of personality or the mind and psychosocial stages of development. • According to Freud there are 3 levels to awareness that include: • Conscious • Subconscious • Unconscious
Sigmund Freud • Conscious level refers to all those experiences that are within one’s immediate awareness. Based on reality and logic. • Subconscious or preconscious is the level awareness which stores thoughts, memories and feelings • They can be recalled with little effort • Unconscious level refers to the part of the mind that is closed to one’s awareness. These stored memories are usually painful and are kept in the unconscious to prevent anxiety and stress.
Sigmund Freud • Freud believed that we can understand behavior if we look into the forces of the unconscious mind. • The levels of awareness are the basis for Freud’s theory on psychoanalysis • Also believe in three function units of the mind: • Id……..Ego……..Superego
EGO part that is most closely related to reality. Developed related to the id and forces from the environment
Superego: further development of the ego. It judges, controls and punishes. Dictates right from wrong
ID………EGO…….SUPEREGO • They are always in conflict with one another • Ideally a balance or compromise should be reached among them
Id……Ego…….Superego Example of conflicts: Id states, “I want it now!” Superego states, “You can’t have it.” Ego states, “Maybe later.”
Libido • Driving behavior behind most of our actions • Pleasure principle • Sexual desire • Part of the id, ego or super-ego?
Defense Mechanisms • Techniques used at all stages of the life cycle to help individuals cope with the threat of anxiety. • Sigmund Freud first recognized these defense mechanisms used to protect the ego. • Most mechanisms are at the unconscious level (except suppression).
Defense Mechanisms • Can be harmful or helpful • Allows the person to adjust to stress while developing acceptable coping mechanisms • Some defense mechanisms are said to be maladaptive • The frequency and intensity of the defense mechanisms use will determine if they help or hinder • Protects our ego
Types of Defense Mechanisms • 1. Suppression: operates on conscious level. Conscious puts out of awareness the distressing thought. • Can be brought back into focus anytime • All individuals use suppression as a means of concentrating.
Types of Mechanisms • Rationalization: Most widely used by all age groups • Used to justify or excuse actions or feelings. • Can prevent individuals from facing reality Can you give me an example?
Types of Mechanisms Identification: one person takes on the personality traits of another person, usually one held in high esteem. Give an example…
Types of Mechanisms • Sublimation: Individual redirects unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable outlets. • Most of these mechanisms involve primitive drives • Considered to be a positive coping mechanism. • Can you give an example?
Types of Mechanisms • Regression: individual facing a conflict returns to an earlier developmental phase. • Example?
Types of Mechanisms • Denial: used totally on the unconscious level. Used when an individual is confronted with an unbearable news. • Person is unable to recognize the event or emotions surrounding the occurrence. • Example..
Types of Mechanisms • Displacement: Transfers emotions associated with a person or object to another less threatening person or object. • Example…
Types of Mechanisms • Projection: often referred to as blaming principle. Person rejects unacceptable thoughts or feelings and attributes this to another person. • Example
Types of Mechanisms • Compensation: Allows the person to make up for deficiencies by excelling in another area. • Example
Types of Mechanisms • Undoing: Individual acts in a manner that symbolically cancels a previous unacceptable thought or action. Individual attempts to make up for something unacceptable. • Example….
Types of Mechanisms • Reaction Formation: also known as over compensation. Unacceptable feelings or thoughts are kept out of one’s awareness and replaced with opposite feelings or thoughts. “Pretender” • Example
Types of Mechanisms • Conversion: Mental mechanism that converts unconscious feelings and anxiety into a physical symptom with no organic basis. • Example
Types of Mechanisms • Repression: Mental mechanism that unconsciously excludes painful experiences, thoughts or feelings from awareness. • Individual can not recall the experience but it influences their behavior • Causes internal conflict
Types of Mechanisms • Adaptive • Maladaptive
Freud Theory: Linked to sexual development • Called Psycho-sexual Theory • Freud described 5 stages • Each stage is associated with a particular conflict • Conflict must be resolved before the child can move on to the next stage.
Stage 2: Anal Stage End of first year of life to the third year Mouth continues to be important source of satisfaction for the child At this stage the organs of elimination give the child pleasure and satisfaction Toilet training initially experienced as a conflict between the child and parent
Stage 3: Phallic Stage • Age 3 to 6 • Child associates pleasurable and conflicting feelings with their genitalia • Masturbation and examination of the genitalia are normal
Stage 3: Phallic stage • Oedipus and Electra Complex • What is it?
Stage 4: Latency Stage • Ages 6 to 12 years of age • Sexual urges are dormant • Child focuses on intellectual pursuits • Peer relationships are important
Stage 5: Genitals Stage • Onset of puberty • Physical changes occur • Hormonal and sexual organ maturation • Awakening of sexual attraction
So, how do I use this information to make decisions about my patients and to be successful on NCLEX-PN questions?
Know… • Normal Physical Development • Psychosocial development is predictable and is observed to occur in a pattern across the years • Nursing care for patients should be planned according to their developmental age, not their chronological age • How to identify that your patient is using coping mechanisms and discuss alternative coping strategies
Let’s try a question related to coping The patient suffers from hyperactivity/ADHD. It would be most appropriate for the nurse to perform which of the following interventions? • Give the patient materials to make a collage • Encourage the patient to use an exercise bike • Encourage the patient to attend a group about managing feelings • Ask the client to play a board game with other patients